Saturday, December 28, 2019
2017 Stem Cells Many people around the world like the idea of stem cells, but are they really a good thing? Stem cell research is debatably the worst way of solving problems with the human body. In fact Scientists have been researching stem cells for a very long time, since 1956 when the first successful bone marrow transplant was made by Dr. E Donnall Thomas. There are not many cons to not use stem cells but they are very important to consider. Stem cells should not be used in the medical field due to ethical issues, health concerns, and a lack of research. There has been a lot of people talking about stem cells and its all over the news. Although most of the people agree with the method to get stem cells and what people use them for,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The blastocyst consists of an outer layer (trophoblast) which is attached to the inner cell mass.) According to New Health Advisor ESC may not be accepted when used in transplants because there is no process to generate them o r make them. They can even cause tumors when used directly from undifferentiated culture prep, which means that the cells are all on the same path to make new cells or a new organ. There is also the problem with technology where scientists donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a way to mass produce adult stem cells in large quantities. Adult stem cells Cannot be grown for long periods of time in culture (Culture is the growth of bacteria or of tissues in scientific study or medicinal use.). There is no sure way to know if the body will reject the stem cell transplant so that makes embryonic stem cell treatment that much unsecure. The problem with adult stem cells that it is hard to make cells efficiently is the same for ESC they have no way of making an effective process to produce ESC. Scientists are so far behind in research and there are so many advances in technology that could have been discovered but more research has to be done on the topic to obtain a full understanding of stem cells Due to the drawbacks of people cutting funding and passing laws to stop production of stem cells, people still think that if scientists harness the use of stem cells they can find the cure to cancer and many other diseases or viruses Scientists couldn t find aShow MoreRelatedThe Controversy Of Eugenics And Genetic Engineering1632 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesgenetics. MendelÃ¢â¬â¢s work was discovered in 1900, and, as a result, Ã¢â¬Å"eugenics movementsÃ¢â¬ ¦had, in fact, blossomed in the United States, Canada, Britain, and Scandinavia, not to mention elsewhere in Europe and in parts of Latin America and AsiaÃ¢â¬ (Kevles 435). Many of these countries, even the United States, adopted eugenic practices. One such practice was sterilizing those deemed Ã¢â¬Å"mentally unfitÃ¢â¬ to reproduce, attempting to eliminate mental disabilities as a result. However, these practices fell out of favorRead MoreBlood Cancer Essay915 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCuring Cancer One Stem Cell at a Time Stem cells transplants in cancer patients has been proven to not only help, but in some cases, cure certain types of cancer. I mean thatÃ¢â¬â¢s crazy, right? Have humans finally found the key to curing THE CANCER for good? With the research that is taking place with stem cells, I would say we are definitely on the right path to solving that supposedly unsolvable puzzle that has plagued mankind for so long. Stem cells are Cells with the ability to divideRead MoreThe List Of Pros And Cons Of Human Cloning1624 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesource4 : The list of Pros and cons of human cloning Summary: The necessary technology has been created, as evident in the story of Dolly the sheep. People still pose questions such as the role of God in Society. Here is a list of pros of human cloning : It could eliminate defective genes , It is considered as the logical next step in the reproductive technology, It could aid in faster recoveries from injuries, it gives a new meaning to genetic modification. As all things human cloning also has consRead MoreStudent Application Essay1742 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesschool where teaching, research, and mentoring are all highly valued. Throughout my careers, I have initiated and led teams of as many as three interns in research projects. I am primary or co-author of five peer-reviewed research papers and have presented at more than ten major conferences in the field of biomedical sciences, including International Society of Stem Cell Research conference. As a biomedical scientist with nine years of research and two years of teaching experiences , and passion forRead MoreEthical And Social Problems Of Genetic Engineering1478 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesbiotechnology. Genetic Engineering is developed to make cell growth faster, increase production, and protect against diseases. An organism that is produced through Genetic Engineering is called Genetically Modified Organism or GMO. The first GMO was a bacterium produced in 1973 in a lab and in 1982 Insulin became the first GMO commercialized product available to the public. In the 21st century, Genetic Engineering is affecting people across the world since most products such as corn, rice, insulin, andRead MoreA Plant-Based Diet Could Save The Planet Essay1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesand desolate, full of poisonous gases and an uninhabitable planet. Many assume this is an exaggeration of what life will be like in 900 or so years, the growing idea of climate change is not. With humans neglecting their options to halt climate change, our environment slowly deteriorating is not a fa r-fetched science fiction story. Becoming a vegetarian is an easy and affordable way to help fight climate change. But, when many people are not willing to take that giant of a leap, there are other ethicalRead MoreBlindness Essay964 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshim from changing the music industry to how it is today. The number of people around the world affected by blindness. Worldwide almost eighty percent of all visual impairment is avoidable (Marcovitz 7). Luckily, over twelve million suffer from less degrees of vision impairment (Plone 2017). World Health Organization Ã¢â¬Å"as many as three-hundred million people will suffer from blindness or other severe vision disabilitiesÃ¢â¬ (NFB 2017). Blindness affects more than one million Americans who fit severe visionRead MoreThe Medicinal Plant Of Medicinal Plants1365 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhat is your favorite medicinal plant? There are hundreds of medicinal plants throughout the world and have been used for thousands of years by many people. There are numerous of medicinal plants still used today and we are constantly finding new uses for these plants. Medicinal plants are common plants that most people use every day, but you do not know that they are in your vitamins and other medicines. One such plant is the Blood Flower which is a very be autiful flower that has very importantRead MoreCure For HIV1156 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesawaited battle due to the virus lying dormant in T cells for years. Although scientists have found a protein called CD32a that lives on the surface of T cells. Due to this discovery, scientists can now use this protein to help distinguish the cells infected with HIV. This is beneficial because even though there are antiretroviral drugs that can prevent cells that are actively duplicating viral DNA from replicating, they do not attack the dormant T cells. In the past, a shock and kill therapy methodRead MoreIntroduction.. Humans Are Known To Be Omnivores And Meat1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagessource of omega -3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, protein and iron (Verma and Banerjee 2010). Livestock sector is one of the fastest growing agricultural subsector globally, employing 1.3 billion individuals and supporting around 600 million poor smallholder farmers in the developing world (Thornton et al. 2002). Livestock provide us food such as meat to maintain the health of the human body (Nestle 1999). With population growth, urbanization, economic growth, and flourishing markets, an increase in global
Friday, December 20, 2019
Ryan Cho 8/28/16 AP European History 1-2 12.5 Assignment 12.5 (Art in the Renaissance) Assignment- Questions and Vocabulary Terms: Giotto, Masaccio, Botticelli, Perspective, Guild, Artisan, Apprentice, Patron, High Renaissance, Pope Julius II, Michelangelo, Northern Renaissance, madrigal. 1) Giotti di Bondone (1266-1337) was an Italian artist and architect from Florence in the very late Middle Ages. He is considered to be one of the most important artists in Italy because he contributed greatly to the Renaissance style of painting and art in general. Many historians today believe that di Bondone started the great art of painting as we know it today, introducing the technique of drawing accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two hundred years.Ã¢â¬ 2) Masaccio (1401-1428) was the first great painter/artist during the Italian Renaissance. He was regarded by many as the best painter of his generation because he could re-create like life figures and give people a sense of three-dimensional works. Sadly, he couldÃ¢â¬â¢ve had much more to offer to Renaissance Italy, but died at the age of 26 of reasons still unknown today. 3) Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) was an excellent Italian painter during the Early Renaissance. He attended the Florentine School (under the patronage of Lorenzo de Ã¢â¬â¢Medici) and would then go on and produce some of the most famous paintings during the Renaissance- Primavera and The Birth of Venus. Many historians see BotticelliÃ¢â¬â¢s work as a visualShow MoreRelatedThe Rise Of The Renaissance Essay1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The Renaissance began in Florence, Italy around the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s to about the 1700Ã¢â¬â¢s. Florence, Italy was the mecca of this rebirth because at the time Florence was extremely wealthy and the people of the city had political freedom and those new ideals of the Renaissance were not being condemned in Florence as they were other cities. This was a time where the arts and the logic of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own mind was valued rather than criticized, the antiquated medieval ideals no longer matched the needs of those whoRead MoreThe Horse And Rider Of The Renaissance1827 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesenvironments, permeating all of society during the Renaissance. The popularity of this animal produced a unique and influential identity for the horse during this period, and this identity constituted several parts. With this multifaceted identity, the horse received new roles in human society. I am attempting to explain these roles of the horse and their effects on the horse and human. By first exp laining the context of the horse and rider of the Renaissance, I set up a discussion of the specific changesRead MoreIslams Influences on the Modern World1422 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAfrica). Islam is currently the second most practiced religion globally. Throughout the Middles ages and the centuries leading up to them Islam was one of few lifestyles which encouraged culture, art and an open state of mind, making it a perfect breeding ground for scientific advancement and progression of the arts. Islam has shared some of the greatest discoveries and revolutions of the pre-modern age, all of which have undoubtedly assisted in the construction of the western world we inhabit. One essentialRead MoreNorthern Humanism, Renaissance, and Late Mannerism1960 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesthe Northern Renaissance and late mannerism, also encountered by Reformation, which separated religious unity. During the Reformation, hostile groups known as Protestants were formed against the church because they wanted a complete renovation of the church and Roman Catholics. Late mannerism emerged at the end of the century and had little influence on Spanish literature, but overruled Spanish painting. Late mannerism also had a dominant impact of the Counter-Reformation on arts, architectureRead MoreThe Soviet Regime And Cultural Organizations1472 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesperished as a result of the Soviet regime. Les Kurbas and Mykola Kulish were executed, along with many others, in the Ã¢â¬Å"Executed RenaissanceÃ¢â¬ . Many literary geniuses from Ukraine were censored and killed as part of StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s programs, which began in 1920, repressing Ukrainian creativity and developm ent in other spheres of literature, not just theater (Executed Renaissance 2011, Studio 1+1). Famous Ukrainian Playwrights And Their Contributions Les Kurbas Ã¢â¬â Often referred to as the father of UkrainianRead MoreBiography of William Shakespeare1709 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesany pupil during that time in school and as well no one who taught at the school. Therefore, the claims that Shakespeare had very little or no education by proponents is unbased. Anti-Stratfordians also question how Shakespeare could have written the works characterized by an extensive vocabulary such as in the plays and poems of the Shakespearian works. No signed letters or manuscripts are left and the six authenticated signatures are written in a form of handwriting that disappeared by 1700 knownRead MorePoe vs. Shakespeare Essay1556 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageswhich was influenced by the time eras they lived in. Poes writing used an intricate vocabulary that created mysterious imagery to capture and lure the reader into the story like in Ã¢â¬Å"The RavenÃ¢â¬ , Ã¢â¬Å"But the raven, sitting lonely on the placid bust, spoke only, That one word, as if his soul in that one word he did outpour.Ã¢â¬ (Poe, 1845, 55-56) Shakespeare wrote in the language that was used in his time, the Renaissance or more specifically Elizabethan times. Shakespeare was a master of the artistry ofRead MoreLanguage : Does It Influence The Way We Perceive The World?2676 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pageslanguage of Newspeak that was ascribed to the inhabitants of Airstrip One, a prefecture where all forms of individualism, independent thought and creativity were persec uted and Ã¢â¬Å"thoughtcrimesÃ¢â¬ were punishable by law. John Lucy (1997) asked the question: does using language in a particular way, (e.g. schooled influence thinking? Do discursive practices influence the way that we think, by altering structural influences? Lucy argues that although there are a number of proposals regarding linguisticRead MoreEssay about The No Child Left Behind Act of 20013306 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesAfrican-American males are compared to other demographics. NCLB prompted schools to focus more on remedial instruction and test-taking strategies. Consequently, educators had to Ã¢â¬Å"shift resources away from important but non-tested subjectsÃ¢â¬ , such as art, physical education, and music, and Ã¢â¬Å"to focus instruction in math and reading on the relatively narrow topics that are most heavily represented on high-stakes testsÃ¢â¬ (Dee and Jacob, 2011, p. 418). Furthermore, instructional effort was reallocated awayRead MoreEssay about Middle East Art and Society2546 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesMiddle East Art and Society This is how I feel when trying to understand art from nothing. The codes of communication, the means by which we understand language are not clear. Art is a language, but a symbolic one. I am trying to understand the reasons and the culture that produces this language. My learning plan, written a few months before we departed for our program, was focused in trying to understand the relationship between culture and art in the Islamic countries. An Islamic art definition
Thursday, December 12, 2019
The new Physics of Cosmic Redshift Introduction:As we all know that light travels from source in a straight line(ray) according to concepts of classical ray optics. Redshift is the phenomenon by which light rays from distant stars that are observed on earth, show smaller frequency (longer wavelength) i. e. shifted towards the Ã¢â¬Å"redÃ¢â¬ end of the visible light region. This phenomenon of redshift is conventionally explained by the well-known Ã¢â¬Å"Doppler effectÃ¢â¬ . But according to the book Ã¢â¬Å"QED: The strange theory of light and matterÃ¢â¬ by Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman Redshift occurs due to the quantum mechanical propagation of photons. The Problem:Edwin HUBBLE discovered that light from distant stars exhibits longer wavelengths or reduced frequencies than that from similar radiation sources on Earth. All specific frequency lines in the electromagnetic spectrum of distant cosmic radiation sources appeared shifted towards the red end of the visible spectrum. His discovery therefore was called Ã¢â¬Å"astronomic redshiftÃ¢â¬ defined by the redshift ratio, z = ? / lo (1), ? l: the elongation of a specific wave length lo: the original wave length of emission at the source Frequency n and wavelength lo of the radiation are correlated by the velocity of light in vacuum, c = n x (2). From on its discovery the Redshift phenomenon was referred to the Ã¢â¬Å"Dopplereffect of wave dynamicsÃ¢â¬ , occurs when the source and the receiver are moving relative to each other. Hence this theory proved that all the distant stars , galaxies are moving away from the Earth i. e the universe is expanding. The apparent radial recession velocity away from Earth can be calculated following the Doppler equation: n/no= (1-v/c) (3) n: a specific frequency of the arriving light, no: corresponding frequency of emission at the source v : the recession velocity of the source c the velocity of light in vacuum Simultaneously, HUBBLE discovered that the apparent recession velocity of cosmic radiation sources increases proportionally to their distance r from Earth: v = H x r (4), H means the famous HUBBLE-constant currently estimated at about 70 km/s per megaparsec or per 3. 6 million light-years. HubbleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory led the current view that the universe has formed from a gigantic explosion called Ã¢â¬Å" the Big BangÃ¢â¬ , which spontaneously arose from a tiny volume of matter at unimaginably high temperature followed up by adiabatic expansion and the condensation of matter while cooling down. Apparently, this expansion process is still going on today. Following HUBBLE? s law (4), the escape velocity of an extremely distant galaxy might gain ultimately the velocity of light in vacuum, meaning its redshift ratio would theoretically equal unity. Physically of course, this is impossible nevertheless redshift ratios of z=5 and even z=7 have been measured in recent years showing supernova explosions, which apparently occurred further away from Earth than the age of the Universe postulated at about 14 billion light-years. In addition, as well known, various other inconsistencies weigh upon the Big Bang theory and many a scientist therefore questions this view. The new theory (methods used and result): The new theory uses the concepts from the Ã¢â¬Å"quantum electrodynamicsÃ¢â¬ . He (Richard Feynman) explained the quantum mechanics of the linear propagation of photons. He showed that from the countless number of radiations that are emitted from the source only those are really effective which reach the source (cover the distance b/w them) via straight line and in close company i. e. when they cover the distance in the shortest possible time. All other dispersed photons take larger time to reach to the receiver and hence are ineffective. He said that the straight stream of photons emitted from the distant source to the Earth will meet/collide innumerous bodies (such as stars, galaxies, planets, comets, meteorites, grains, etc. hich are swirling around in the universe with a typical speed of few hundreds kilometers per second) through which the photons can not pass. When those bodies cross a straight ray of light, this ray will be interrupted shortly and all photons dropping onto the bodies will be removed from the stream independently of their individual energy or frequency. After many such interruptions only the few remaining photons will reach the Earth and the frequency of these radiations arriving on the Earth exhibit lower frequencies because the dispersed photons did not rech in time to the earth. Thus the frequency shifts towards the red end of the visible region (spectrum). As the number of interruptions depend (directly proportional) on the distance between the source and the destination, the redshift ration is also directly proportional to the distance between the source and the receiver ( Earth ). Thus this theory confirms the HubbleÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery that the redshift ratio depends upon the distance. HUBBLE? s law still implies another connection. When replacing in equation (4) the recession velocity v by the product z x c, i. e. y a fraction of the ultimate velocity of light, an interesting correlation arises: z = H/c x r (5). The constant factor H/c can be regarded as a modified HUBBLE-constant, which amounts to 0. 00023 per megaparsec or 0. 00007 per million light-years. This modified HUBBLE-constant signifies the loss of photons suffered by a beam of light, which has traveled one million light-years through the Universe. It is a very small loss of photons in fact ov er such big distance, confirming our experience that the Universe is largely empty of solid matter. The reciprocal of the modified HUBBLE-constant i. e. 1/0. 00007 gives 14 billion light-years, in accordance with the postulated age of our Universe following the conventional theory. However, the meaning is different. It shows namely that ordinary starlight cannot propagate further through the Universe than 14 billion lightyears. All photons grouped in a straight light beam from a remote source to the Earth would have got lost due to the absorption effect of celestial matter. Usually, we cannot look deeper into the Universe than this distance, corresponding theoretically to a redshift ratio of unity. However, what about those bigger redshift ratios of z=5 or even z=7, which have been observed in recent time? We know from nuclear physics that energetic radiation penetrating through a shielding medium will be absorbed according to the general correlation, E = Eo x e^Ã µ(gama) (6), E means the radiation energy behind the shield, Eo the energy of emission at the source, the absorption coefficient of the shielding medium and r the traveling distance through the medium. In the present case, it makes sense to take the modified HUBBLE-constant H/c as a cosmic photon absorption coefficient and r as traveling distance of a stream of photons through the Universe. The energy of photons emitted by a heat source corresponds to the well-known correlation, E = kxT (7), T: the surface temperature of the source k: is the BOLTZMANN-constant On the other hand, the photon energy corresponds to PLANCKs equation, E = h x n (8), h is the PLANCK-constant and n the frequency of the photons. From equations (6), (7), and (8) follow the correlations, n/no = T/To and E / Eo = e-H/c . r (9). Referring to the previous equations (1) and (2), one finds that the cosmic redshift ratio equals z = e H/c . r Ã¢â¬â 1 (10). The distance of a cosmic radiation source therefore can be estimated from its redshift ratio according to r = 1 / H/c x ln (z + 1) (11), with H/c = 0. 00007 per million light-year. For a redshift ratio of z=1, for instance, one finds 9. 9 billion light-years, and for z=5 a cosmic distance of 25. 6 billion light-years. Conclusion: -According to this new theory more accurate age of universe can be calculated -In contrast to the traditional redshift theory, the present new physics of cosmic redshift doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show any upper limit of Ã¢â¬ËzÃ¢â¬â¢ or any restricted age of our Universe respectively. Referring to the aforementioned equations, the cosmic redshift ratio also equals, z = To/T Ã¢â¬â 1 (12), i. e. it is proportional to the ratio of the surface temperature of a cosmic radiation source To and its apparent temperature T observed on Earth. The light rays from a remote cluster of galaxies at an average surface temperature of about 5800Ã °K as our sun would show the apparent temperature of 970Ã °K (700Ã °C) on Earth, when arriving from a cosmic distance of z=5 or 25. 6 billion light-years. This cluster, of which most of the photons got lost on the way to Earth, would be invisible to ordinary optical telescopes. However, cosmic radiation sources of much higher surface temperatures or bigger emission energy like supernova explosions would still be visible over such extraordinary distances, which largely exceed the age of our Universe as postulated from the big-bang hypothesis. taken from the paper itself) -In contrast to the conventional theory of cosmic redshift, the present new physics does not present any difficulty to explain those observations. In addition, this physics still offers another interesting conclusion.
Wednesday, December 4, 2019
Cardiac Phsiology Essay The study of cardio physiology was broken up into five distinct parts all centering on the cardiovascular system. The first lab was utilization of the electrocardiogram (ECG). This studied the electrical activities of the heart by placing electrodes on different parts of the skin. This results in a graph on calibrated paper of these activities. These graphs are useful in the diagnosis of heart disease and heart abnormalities. Alongside natural heart abnormalities are those induced by chemical substances. The electrocardiogram is useful in showing how these chemicals adjust the electrical impulses that it induces. The second part of this lab was a computer simulation program to illustrate a frogs electrocardiogram using various drugs in an isolated setting. The computer program entitled Effects of Drugs on the Frog Heart allowed experimental conditions to be set for specific drugs.The different drugs used were calcium, digitalis, pilocarpine, atropine, potassium, epinephrine, caffeine , and nicotine. Each of these drugs caused a different electrocardiogram and beats per minute reading. The calcium-magnesium ration affects the permeability of the cell membrane(Fox). When calcium is placed directly on the heart it results in three physiological functions. The force of the heart increases while the cardiac rate decreases. It also causes the appearance of ectopic pacemakers in the ventricles, producing abnormal rhythms (Fox). Digitalis affect on the heart is very similar to that of calcium. It inhibits the sodium-potassium pump activated by ATP that promotes the uptake of extracellular calcium by the heart. This in return strengthens myocardial contraction (Springhouse). Pilocarpine on the other hand acts to decrease the heart rate. It achieves this by assisting in the release of acetylcholine from the vagus nerve. Atropine on the other hand block acetylcholine receptors thus decreasing cardiac rate. By placing potassium directly on the heart, its extracellular conce ntration increases thus decreasing the resting potential. This brings the resting potential closer to threshold and weakens myocardial contractions. Epinephrines action increases the strength of contraction and of the cardiac rate. Caffeine is a stimulant that also increases the strength of contraction and of the cardiac rate. It inhibits phosphodiesterase that breaks down cyclic AMP thus causing an increase in cAMP levels. Nicotine actively binds to the nicotinic receptors causing stimulation of the parasympathetic ganglia. This in returns slows the heart rate. By listening to chest one can hear the actual mechanical contraction of the heart. Upon the closure of the valves a lub can be heard and the semilunar valves shut a dub is heard. Using this technique, diagnosis of a heart murmur can be made. The relative opening of the foramen ovale can cause this condition. Adding a device known as a sphygmomanometer and listening to the brachial artery is how blood pressure is taken. Blood pressure is highly dependent on cardiac output and peripheral resistance. Cardiac output is the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute. The resistance the blood receives flowing through the arterioles is peripheral resistance. As a result of this, blood pressure can be controlled by dilation and constriction of arterioles. Upon measuring blood pressure, on should be able to hear five phases of sound. These phases are:1. A loud clear tapping. 3.A loud thumping following the murmurs. In determining how fit we are a number of test can be used. This can include but is not limited to the ECG, blood pressure, and/or pulse rate. By taking the pulse under various conditions the maximum cardiac rate can be estimated. Trend wise, a non-athlete will reach their maximum cardiac output at a lower workload than an athlete. Although not completely accurate, this can be a very good indicator of fitness.In order to carry out the electrocardiogram experiment a number of materials needed to be obtained. Three disposable electrodes along with the electrode gel were needed. The BIOPAC program, Mac Computer, and the SS 2L lead (black, red, white) were used to collect data on the subject. The electrodes were connected to the body (skin). The black lead was placed on the anterior right leg just above the ankle joint. The same was done with the red lead expect placement was on the left leg. The white lead was placed on the right wrist just above the palm. After correct placement of the se electrodes, the SS 2L lead was connected to the CH 2 port. Lesson 3 was opened and the setup icon was clicked. After the setup as completed, record was clicked and the ECG recorded for 30 seconds. This was done while the subject was sitting relaxed. Using the I-beam tool, peak-to-peak measurements were taken. This value was the inter-beat interval. With that number, beat per minute was found (BPM = 60 / IBI). Essay On Telemachos EssayBibliography:The Parkinsons Institute. 29 Feb. 2000 Lieberman, Dr. National Parkinson Foundation, Inc. Copyright 1996-2000. 31 Mar. 2000Brady, John. Parkinsons Information. 1998. 13 Feb. 2000 Tuen, Charles M.D. Neuroland. 22 July 1998. 1 Apr. 2000
Thursday, November 28, 2019
Rousseau`s Social Contract Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a fascinating individual whose unorthodox ideas and passionate prose caused a flurry of interest in 18th century France. Rousseau's greatest work were published in 1762 -The Social Contract. Rousseau society itself is an implicit agreement to live together for the good of everyone with individual equality and freedom. However, people have enslaved themselves by giving over their power to governments which are not truly sovereign because they do not promote the general will. Rousseau believed that only the will of all the people together granted sovereignty. Various forms of government are instituted to legislate and enforce the laws. He wrote, "The first duty of the legislator is to make the laws conformable to the general will, the first rule of public economy is that the administration of justice should be conformable to the laws." His natural political philosophy echoes the way of Lao Tzu: "The greatest talent a ruler can possess is to disguise his power, in order to render it less odious, and to conduct the State so peaceably as to make it seem to have no need of conductors." Rousseau valued his citizenship in Geneva where he was born, and he was one of the first strong voices for democratic principles. "There can be no patriotism without liberty, no liberty without virtue, no virtue without citizens; create citizens, and you have everything you need; without them, you will have nothing but debased slaves, from the rulers of the State downwards." In the civil order, there can be any sure and legitimate rule of administration, men being taken as they are and laws as they might be. In this inquiry we shall endeavor always to unite what right sanctions with what is prescribed by interest, in order that justice and utility may in no case be divided. We enter upon this task without proving the importance of the subject. We shall be asked if we are the prince or the legislator, to write on politics. We answer that we am neither, and that is why we do so. If I were a prince or a legislator, I should not waste time in saying what wants doing; I should do it, or hold my peace. As we were born citizens of a free state, and a member of the sovereign, we should feel, however feeble the influence of our voice can have on public affairs, the right of voting on them makes it our duty to study them: and we are happy, when we reflect upon governments, to find the inquiries always furnish us with new reasons for loving that of our own country. Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself the master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? we do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question can be answered. If we took into account only force, and the effects derived from it, "as long as a people is compelled to obey, and obeys, it does well; as soon as it can shake off the yoke, and shakes it off, it does still better; for, regaining its liberty by the same right as took it away, either it is justified in resuming it, or there was no justification for those who took it away." But the social order is a sacred right which is the basis of all other rights. Nevertheless, this right does not come from nature, and must therefore be founded on conventions. Before coming to that, we have to prove what has just been asserted. The most ancient of all societies, and the only one that is natural, is the family: and even so the children remain attached to the father only so long as they need him for their preservation. As soon as this need ceases, the natural bond is dissolved. The children, released from the obedience they owed to the father, and the father, released from the care he owed his children, return equally to independence. If they remain united, they continue so no longer naturally, but voluntarily; and the family itself is then maintained only by convention. This common liberty results from the nature of man. His first law is to provide for his own preservation, his first cares are those which he owes to himself; and, as soon as he reaches years of discretion, he is the sole judge of the proper means of preserving himself, and consequently becomes his own master. The family
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Essay Example on The Oldest Surviving Books in the World Books have been around a long time. They are ways to collect and present information, spread ideas, and to entertain. Despite printers appearing rather recently in our history, books have been made as early as 600 BC. The oldest surviving books are: the Etruscan Gold Book, the Pyrgi Gold Tablets, the Nag Hammadi Library, the St. Cuthbert Gospel, and the Book of Kells. Etruscan Gold Book The oldest surviving book is the Etruscan Gold Book. According to Wigan Lane Books, Ã¢â¬Å"Thought to be the oldest multi-page book in the world, dating to about 660 BC, the Etruscan Gold Book was discovered 70 years ago whilst digging a canal off the Strouma river in Bulgaria. The book is made from 6 sheets of 24 carat gold, bound together with rings. The plates are written in Etruscan characters, and also depicted is a horse, horseman, a Siren, a lyre, and soldiersÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"10 Of the Oldest Known Surviving Books in the WorldÃ¢â¬ ). However, with the Etruscan language being obsolete, the exact meaning of its contents cannot be fully deciphered. Pyrgi Gold Tablets The second-oldest surviving book is the Pyrgi Gold Tablets. As stated by AncientPages.com, Ã¢â¬Å"Dating back to 500 B.C., the Pyrgi gold tablets were discovered in 1964 in an excavation of a sanctuary in ancient Pyrgi, the port of the southern Etruscan town of Caere in Italy. What makes the tablets so special is that they are bilingual. Two of the tablets are inscribed in the Etruscan language, [and] the third in Phoenician and are today regarded as the oldest historical source of pre-Roman Italy among the known inscriptionsÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Pyrgi Gold Tablets: A Rare Ancient Bilingual TreasureÃ¢â¬ ). It provides a dedication to the god Ishtar by King Thefarie Velianas. Nag Hammadi Library Moving on to the third-oldest surviving book, we have the Nag Hammadi Library, which is rather a collection of tomes. According to Wigan Lane Books,Ã¢â¬ 13 leather bound papyrus codices were discovered in 1945 buried inside a sealed jar, by a local man in the town of Nag Hammadi in Upper Egypt. The books, containing Gnostic texts, are dated from around the first half of the 4th century AD. Written in the Coptic language, the codices are thought to have been copied from GreekÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"10 Of the Oldest Known Surviving Books in the WorldÃ¢â¬ ). As of now, you can see these books in Cairo, Egypt in the Coptic Museum. The St. Cuthbert Gospel Next we travel to Britain for the fourth-oldest surviving book, known as the St. CuthbertÃ¢â¬â¢s Gospel. As detailed by the British Library, Ã¢â¬Å"A manuscript copy of the Gospel of St John, the St Cuthbert Gospel was produced in the North East of England in the late 7th century and was placed in St CuthbertÃ¢â¬â¢s coffin on Lindisfarne, apparently in 698. The Gospel was found in the saintÃ¢â¬â¢s coffin at Durham Cathedral in 1104Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"British Library Acquires the St Cuthbert Gospel the Earliest Intact European BookÃ¢â¬ ). Surprisingly, it is in excellent condition and very neatly written. Book of Kells Lastly, the fifth-oldest surviving book is the Book of Kells. According to Wigan Lane Books, Ã¢â¬Å"The Book of Kells is kept in the Trinity College Library in Dublin, Ireland, and is thought to have been created by Celtic monks around 800 AD. The book is an incredibly ornate illuminated manuscript Gospel book, written in Latin, containing the four Gospels of the New TestamentÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"10 Of the Oldest Known Surviving Books in the WorldÃ¢â¬ ). It is considered as IrelandÃ¢â¬â¢s finest national treasure. Though many ancient books are now only referred to and are not around anymore, there are some volumes that have survived that are older than Jesus Christ. The oldest available book is Etruscan Gold Book, written around 600 BC. Many of these incredible ancient books are ornate and are religious in nature. Other books that are famed for their age are the Pyrgi Gold Tablets, the Nag Hammadi Library, the St. Cuthbert Gospel, and the Book of Kells. Ã¢â¬Å"10 Of the Oldest Known Surviving Books in the World.Ã¢â¬ Wigan Lane Books, 21 Apr. 2019, wiganlanebooks.co.uk/blog/interesting/10-of-the-oldest-known-surviving-books-in-the-world/. Ã¢â¬Å"British Library Acquires the St Cuthbert Gospel the Earliest Intact European Book.Ã¢â¬ The British Library, The British Library, 1 Jan. 1AD, www.bl.uk/press-releases/2012/april/british-library-acquires-the-st-cuthbert-gospelthe-earliest-intact-european-book. Ã¢â¬Å"Pyrgi Gold Tablets: A Rare Ancient Bilingual Treasure.Ã¢â¬ Ancient Pages, 23 Nov. 2018, www.ancientpages.com/2018/11/23/pyrgi-gold-tablets-a-rare-ancient-bilingual-treasure/.
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Making Table Wine at Home - Article Example Sometimes, you think that it is always easier to purchase wine than to make it. Think again. If your ancestors made them in their own homes centuries ago, there is no reason why you cannot make it when it is already the twenty-first century. You have the technology to make wine in your own homes without having to stomp on your grapes as ancient winemakers did. My grandmother has been making wines for our families for the past forty years. I recently learned how to do it, and I am happy to say that homemade wine can taste just as good as other high-quality branded wines. I will explain three steps in making wine: preparing all materials, fermenting and racking the wine, and bottling the wine. Let us start with the first step of making wine, which is preparing all materials and ingredients. The first step is to prepare all the materials and ingredients needed. You will need standard and intermediate winemaking pieces of equipment and raw materials. The standard winemaking pieces of equ ipment are carboy, iris jaw type floor corker, wine press, and thermometer (Great Homemade Wine). The intermediate materials are corks, empty glass bottles, oak, brush, clamp, tubing, and siphon (Great Homemade Wine). The raw materials or ingredients you need are grapes, wine yeast, and sugar, as well as sulfite tablets. (Wineintro.com). I recommend fresh grapes instead of grape juice because the former can provide high-quality wine (Cooke 4). I further suggest that you select Cabernet Sauvignon grapes if you have those in your area because it is the Ã¢â¬Å"king among wine grapesÃ¢â¬ (Warrick 14). Or, you can choose any type of grapes from the species of Vitis vinifera, because they tend to ripen with the right amounts of sugar, acids, and flavor compounds (Warrick 14). For water, spring water is suggested, because it has the right amount of minerals, but no chlorine (Peragine 40). For sugar, you can experiment with any kind of sugars, although you can use invert sugar. For yeast , choose the yeast specifically used for wines, called wine yeast, to produce a better tasting wine (Warrick 14). You also have to sanitize the area and types of equipment. You have to clean your work area and make sure that there is no clutter that will intervene with your winemaking. You also have to wash your equipment. You can use commercial winemaking cleansers that can be bought from many winemaking shops, or you can use bleach (Wineintro.com). You should be able to clean your carboys and other equipment as meticulously as possible (Wineintro.com). Part of the preparation is making sure that the grapes are crushed already. You can rent a crusher from small wineries or shops, or you can buy one. Before the primary fermentation can start, the grapes have to be crushed to produce the juice, pulp and skins, which are also called must (Great Homemade Wine). After preparing your ingredients and cleaning your materials, it is now time to ferment and rack the wine. Your second step is to ferment and rack the wine (Wineintro.com). There are two ways for fermentation that can be used (Great Homemade Wine).
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
English Only Debate Paper - Assignment Example Schools should provide the language classes our immigrants and their families need, as long as their purpose is the teaching of EnglishBut we must stop the practice of multilingual education as a means of instilling ethnic pride or as therapy for low self-esteem or out of elitist guilt over a culture built on the traditions of the West." Those who support English Only tend to be United States citizens interested in preserving our long-held common language, those who want to avoid ethnic strife, those fighting civil rights improvements for minorities, those who long for national unity and civic responsibility, those who fear assimilation will be discouraged by bilingual education and voting, those with animosity towards immigrants, those who believe Hispanics and Asians already enjoy unfair advantages, those in political leadership attempting to set a tone of isolation, racists, and those who are threatened by the concept of diversity (Crawford, 1997). According to the National Education Association (2001, pg. ... My Personal Opinion I tend to take the neutral stance on highly controversial debates because I am not one to willingly face strong confrontation. However, if I had to choose a side, I would support the English only initiatives. The reasoning that opponents to the issue give actually supports the very reason why the initiative should go through. They say it is important to preserve native culture and language, and that's one of the main reasons why they are opposed to it. Well, what about the people that were raised in the United States Do they not deserve to have their culture and language preserved as well Conclusion The purpose of this assignment has been to compare and contrast both sides of the controversial issue and explain the writer's opinion on the English Only debate. Whereas both sides make convincing arguments, it still seems only natural that a country would get to keep its native language as its own. If too many cultures and languages are supported, the United States will become something its not and may very well come apart. References Crawford, J.W. (1997). The English Only movement. Issues in U.S. Language Policy. Retrieved March 16, 2008, from http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/jWCRAWFORD/engonly.htm English Only. (2001). National Education
Monday, November 18, 2019
Assignment - Research Paper Example The US import of oats is almost 80% of the total world imports. World production is on constant decline from 55.9 million tonnes in 1960-61 to about 23.0 million tonnes in 2010-2011. Russia is the largest producer of oats in the world but does not export any as most of the oats is consumed domestically. (OATS: SITUATION AND OUTLOOK 2010) Trade of various good including agricultural commodities between Canada and US is governed by the free trade agreement signed by them in the year 1988. Objective of this treaty was to eliminate barriers to trade in services and goods. The agreement facilitates and provides for a fair competition within the free trade area. Oats get benefit of this treaty and Canada being a surplus producer of oats became a largest exporter to US for last several years. The article 408 of this agreement states that there will not be any extra tax, duty or any charge on the export of any good. Moreover, article 603of this agreement also establishes that there will be no disguised barriers to trade. (Canada - United States Free Trade Agreement, 1988) In European Union, the Scandinavian countries such as Finland and Sweden are the principal oat producers and exporters too. These two exporters cater to the needs of other EU importing countries. Germany and Spain are the major importers of oat and trades among them are governed as per EU regulations (Europa 2011). Finland and Sweden joined the EU during 1995 and since then they were provided with oat export subsidies until 2006. Major objective for providing subsidy was to prevent those acres getting converted to other crop such as barley. Between 1995 and 2006, EU export to US averaged at 0.4 MT of oats per year; however with the withdrawal of the EU subsidy export to the US plummeted to just 0.04MT. Trade among the EU member countries does not attract any levy, or duties. That is the reason most of the oats produced in Finland and Sweden gets consumed in European Union only. Raw
Friday, November 15, 2019
Critical Perspective Of Marxism And Foucauldian Sociology Essay Critical theory dates back to the Enlightenment and is connected to the writings of Kant, Hegel and Marx. However, in the 20th century, critical theory became closely associated with a distinct body of thought, known as the Frankfurt School. It states Devetak in Burchills and Linklaters Theories of International Relations. It is the work of Horkheimer, Adorno, Benjamin, Marcuse, Fromm and more recently, Habermas that critical theory has acquired a renewed strength. Thus, the term critical theory was used as the symbol of a philosophy which questions the effective order of political and social modernity through an order of immanent critique. It was mainly an attempt to regain a critical potential that had been overrun by recent intellectual, social, cultural, economic and technological trends. The Frankfurt School of Critical Theory is the longest and most famous traditions of Marxism.Ã This tradition is often referred as critical theory- meaning a special kind of social philosophy from its inception in 1923 by Felix Weil (Seiler, 2004).Ã The critical theory of society of the Frankfurt School continues to excite interest and controversy (Kellner, 2001).Ã A theory is critical to the extent that it seeks human emancipation, to liberate human beings from the circumstances that enslave them.Ã A number of critical theories have emerged in connection with the many social movements that identify varied dimension of the domination of human beings in modern societies (Gutting, 2003). The above statement sets the mood for this paper as I will be looking at how the critical management theory of yesterday applies to the modern western today.Ã Another key aspect will be on trying to articulate the connections between the management perspectives of contemporary society in the critical theory.Ã The focus will be on The focus will be on as the location for cooperative, practical and transformative activity continues today.Ã This attempt will be on determining the nature and limits of real democracy in complex, pluralistic, and globalised societies. what is it, why is it applied to management) Introduction part 2 (150): Marx and Foucault as critical theorists (an overview of their thought). A Marxists thought is based on this lifestyle, a science of logic called Dialectics. Thus, Marxism is both a theory and a practice. The theories of Marxism are based on a scientific method of thought called dialectal materialism.Ã Theory is based on a particular set of conditions that are always finite, and thus, any theory is necessarily limited. To test the validity of theory, Marxists rely on empirical evidence as the criteria of truth (Basgen, 2005). Marxism embraces modernity and Marxists argue that one of the main problems is that capitalism puts fetters on the progressive forces. The forces of capitalism are viewed as progressive in sweeping away the traditional, religious, backward, and feudal forms of society, spreading industrialisation and urbanisation across societies (Moody, 2003). Marxs critique of capitalism was that while this system had incredible power and potential to transform human society positively, in actual fact it resulted in exploitation and ultimately limited the possibility for further improvement (Powell, 2001). Moody (2003), describe this environment as workers were emancipated from traditional limits but became slaves of the new factory system, monopolisation resulted in limits on trade and further progress, and the state acted in the interests of the bourgeoisie rather than society as a whole. Followed by your argument (that they each offer a distinct analysis (Foucault as a critic of Marxisms humanism, subjectivity and economic reductionism) but both are useful to evaluate management approaches Marx for economic relationships between manager and worker and Foucault for patterns in disciplinary behaviour found in managerial practices. CRITICAL THEORY The term Critical theory has its origins in the 20th century Frankfurt School, and now is associated with scholars across a range of disciplines.Ã Its purpose of inquiry is to confront injustices in society (Clark, 2004).Ã Critical Theory has been deeply concerned with the fate of modernity, and has offered systematic and comprehensive theories of the trajectory of modernity. Critical theory began by putting Marxian political economy at the centre of analysis, and early critical theory was materialist and committed to socialism (Gingrich, 2000).Ã Ã Critical theory has generally been committed to the idea of modernity and progress, while at the same time noting the ways that features of modernity can create problems for individuals and society (Kellner, 2000). This is much reflected on the 21st century, though there is progress in many things, but still issues like globalisation tends to pose important problems for the society.Ã Ã Ã According to Heilman (1998), being critical involves understanding the sets of historically contingent circumstances and contradictory power relationships that create the conditions in which we live.Ã Theory helps us to organize the world, to sort out the details, to make some coherent sense out of a kaleidoscope of sensations (Ayers, 1992). Ã When theory is theorized, as stated by Heilman (1998), the imperatives of practice bring the theory down to the ground.Ã Phenomena are observed and experienced; this experience informs theory; and then the theory is further modified as a result of additional practice.Ã Rather like fiction writing, critical theorizing is a process of imagining and describing a nonreal but possible world. Ã The critical theorists have deeply influenced contemporary social theory, communication theories, cultural theory and many more for a number of decades.Ã According to Clark (2004), Critical theorists are committed to understand the relationship between societal structures (such as economic and political) and ideological patterns of thought that constrain the human imagination and thus limit opportunities for confronting and changing unjust social systems.Ã Critical theorists emphasise that theory and research must serve emancipatory interests, to create a world that satisfies the needs and powers of social actors (Sanghera, 2004).Ã Ã According to critical theory, people are dominated by a false consciousness created and perpetuated by capitalism in order to preserve the hegemony of those in power (Meyer-Emerick, 2004).Ã Due to this cause, one can assume that it prevents people from freely pursuing their own interests.Ã This dissent is only dismissed if people begin to see the contradictions between the social construction of the world and their lived experience.Ã CRITICAL THEORY TODAY Ã The critical theorists analysed the integration of the working class into advanced capitalist societies and suggested the need for new agents of a social change.Ã They seemed to provide more vivid descriptions of the present configurations of culture and society (Kellner, 2004).Ã According to my understanding, we look into the critical theory of the past to gain methodological insight and political inspiration to carry on the tasks of critical social theory in the present time.Ã Critical theory is crucial for South Africa including the whole African continent, as we are undergoing vast transformations.Ã Ã Some of these transformations are promising to uplift our standard of living as the society, but others are threatening.Ã Globalisation is one of the new transformations.Ã Ã Revolutionary Marxists maintain that although change may arise as an unintended consequence of molecular acts of resistance, the importance of resistance is that it can generate collective agents capable of pursuing the conscious goal of social change (Hassard, 2001).Ã This self-limiting resistance, orchestrated from above and aimed solely at affecting them as described by Hassard, is less likely to be successful in achieving even minor reforms than resistance that aims to effect a revolutionary transformation of society. Ã We have seen an interesting case here in South Africa opposed to what Marxists declared to be politically uninteresting which is labour process theory.Ã Their argument is that it does not engage with the issues of political and trade union organization, which influence the consciousness and unity of workers (Hogan, 2001).Ã COSATU (Congress of South African Trade Union) which is having close ties with the ANC (African National Congress) is making this labour process very interesting.Ã Cosatu fights for the rights of workers while promoting the spirit of unity.Ã They do this in a unified political activity. Ã Although the immediate interests of workers in production may diverge, their grievances and interests can be unified into a common political program, but that unification is a political achievement.Ã This is more apparent on what happened recently with the case of Zimbabwe where Cosatu wanted to have talks with Zimbabwes congress of Trade Union.Ã Cosatu believes that the unification of workers can have a huge impact on political changes as MDC (Movement for Democratic Change) is aiming at changing the political affairs of Zimbabwe ahead of Robert Mugabes Zanu-PF (the ruling party).Ã Marxs critique of capitalism Capitalism is the system that upholds the relationship between the owners of the means of production and workers. The former comprise the bourgeois class and the latter the proletariat. (Bourgeois managers, proletariat workers). Marxs analysis of the factory can be translated to the office environment, the relationship between the two classes remains, e.g. office workers do not own the company, equipment and materials the belong to the company. Counter agreement is that companies give share to employees, however, shares are small they dont give power to the employees but it is a form of making them employees feel part of the company in order to gain more out of them . The bourgeois (managers that have control) Commodity fetishism Culture of the commodity, or what a capitalist organisation produces, as containing a value dependant on market factors, rather than on the activity of labour. This produces an objective relationship between commodities and labourers are reduced to the condition and status of the commodities they produce. Implications for critical theory looking at management approaches: Prices of commodity go up and down and so does the price of labour cost e.g. recession Salary: paid no matter how much they produce Bonus: to encourage production to increase profits Marx: (800wrds) Exploitation as Alienation Explain Marxs articulation of exploitation. The practice of mistreat of workers in an environment that is deliberately designed to maintain it, i.e. capitalism, Marxs conforming the workers alienated by/owners of the means of production to gain profits at the expense of the workers (e.g. managers forcing employees to undertake tasks outside their job description in order to cut costs and maximise profits) because people are alienated they conform to the demands of their employers in order to keep jobs safe. Foucault bound to rules, rule-bound individual, Marxs Humanism Foucault Strucralist, came after Marx Moves away from the economics of Marx. Looks at power and reconceptualises it. Management as a representation of power relations in society. Specific rules maintain, regulate and institutionalize practices in a work environment (office, factory, school, etc), Power- Disciplinary power the panopticon as a illustration of society, the middle tower is all seeing yet prisoners always obey without knowing for certain whether they are being monitored, by whom or by how many. The result is the creation of self-regulating, obedient and disciplined prisoners (at least in theory). Relate this form of disciplinary power to management. Power as the central driving force in a society within a group of people in a working environment. Manager doesnt create a system the manager merely plays along with the rules, thus maintaining the relations of dominance and dominated. Discourses (rules that we work within and obey) and all to do with power Power-Knowledge, all power engenders power and (hanin essay). The rules that are emplace are their to maximise profits and to make the workforce obedient, docile subjects ; alternative view to commodity fetishism, marx says the worker turns in to a commodity that is commodity fetishism, Focault would say that the individual is merely the collective of the discourses they obey. The two concerns are thats 1. Marx looks at the economy 2. Foucault looks at power. 3 objections to ideology (Marx) 1. requires an opposing concept of scientific truth 2. implies that we are subjects(agents of history to change it) 3. relative to economic superstructure MICHEL FOUCALT (1926 1984) Ã His studies challenged the influence of German political philosopher Karl Marx and Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. Foucault offered new concepts that challenged peoples assumptions about prisons, the police, insurance, care of the mentally ill, gay rights, and welfare (Ron, 2000). Ã The main influences on Foucaults thought were German philosophers Frederick Nietzsche and Martin Heidegger.Ã The connect.net website, describe Foucaults thought as explored the shifting patterns of power within a society and the ways in which power relates to the self. He investigated the changing rules governing the kind of claims that could be taken seriously as true or false at different times in history. Marx Vs Foucault Foucault would argue that power relations are the units of analysis, not the individual; in other words the individual is created by power-knowledge (power is above all creative, it creates subjects). Marx puts the individual at the centre, where the subject is conscious of his role in the historical process. Humanism (placing the individual at the centre of events, man as the agent, as the creator of history (what Foucault critiques as a structuralist philosopher). Marxs humanism can be defined as Power-Knowledge, all power engenders power and (hanin essay). The rules that are emplace are their to maximise profits and to make the workforce obedient, docile subjects ; alternative view to commodity fetishism, marx says the worker turns in to a commodity that is commodity fetishism, Focault would say that the individual is merely the collective of the discourses they obey. The two concerns are thats 1. Marx looks at the economy 2. Foucault looks at power. 600 word on whether Scientific management theory can better cope with analysis of management than Marx and Foucault Scientific management (Taylor System) also known as Taylorism is a theory of management that analysis and manufactures workflows to improve employee (labour) productivity. The idea was developed by a Frederick Winslow Taylor between 1880 and 1890, and it was the first published monograph (written documents). Frederick Taylor believed that decisions based upon tradition and the rules of the thumb should be replaced by accurate procedures that are developed after a study of an individual at work. This means that there is a high level of managerial control over employee work practices. Scientific management is a distinction on the theme of efficiency; it developed in the 19th and 20th century were instance of large recurring theme in the human life of increasing efficiency, decreasing waste and using experiential methods to dictate what matters rather than accepting pre-existing ideas of what matters. Management today is the greatest use of scientific management is a form to contrast a new and improved way of doing business. The Marxist theory of capital sees labour as a cost of production resulting in the alienation of workers as the need for labour surfaces from the physical needs defined by the fundamental relationship between humans and their physical environment (Hatch, 1997, p.27).Ã Taylors ideas on scientific management (1990) have similar economic themes to Marx and Adam Smith.Ã By viewing management as a science, he broke down the managerial problem into stages of research, definition, analysis and implementation.Ã His principles were inherently based on the assumption that people put in as little effort as possible into their work and were soldiering on in order to earn money.Ã This shifted all the responsibility from the worker to the manager and scientific methods were used to determine the most efficient way of working.Ã After selecting the best person capable of performing the task, they were trained to work efficiently and their performance was strictly monitored.Ã In hin dsight, though this may have appeared to be a good generic strategy for the success of a firm, it heavily depended on whether the optimal method of producing could be found and whether or not the strategy was implemented correctly.Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Conclusion Great managers know and value the unique abilities and even the eccentricities of their employees, and they learn how best to integrate them into a coordinated plan of attack (Buckingham, 2005).Ã Managers are only as good as their ideas, resources and workers.Ã The way in which he deploys the resources at his disposal is essentially the making or breaking of a manager.Ã Great managers are able to discover and develop what is different about each person who works for them.Ã Strictly defining management and the role of managers can only be done after the managerial act has been observed in reality, the majority of the analysis is theoretical evaluation and speculation based on past examples.Ã Ã It is important to understand that the perception of what managers are supposed to do evolves with the industry and technology that runs parallel to the growth of a firm.Ã Managers used to control by fear and use absolute power, however, a more humanistic approach is now used , in which the employee is valued in the decision making process undertaken by the manager.Ã
Wednesday, November 13, 2019
As in many societies different groups of people are connected by similar traits. People of hunting and gathering societies also share similar qualities. Although the Kung, Shoshone, and Mbuti live in unique environments they still share numerous common characteristics because of there life styles. The Kung San and Shoshone make critical decisions in similar ways. The people of the Shoshone and Kung are much like a modern community in that they live together but for the most part live separate lives. They come together to hunt, like we to work, but when the hunt is over they get paid, in the form of meat, and go home to their families. If they should choose to any group may leave the whole at anytime. The Mbuti choose to live as a whole. They act as one family. All decisions are made by the community as a whole. If the group cannot reach consensus on a problem then the group may split for that time but will rejoin once the projects are completed. Unlike the Kung and Shoshone the Mbuti stay together, for the most part, throughout the year and do not diffuse when supplies become more plentiful. The two most important things a person needs is food and water. Many different foods are consumed by the Mbuti. There diet consists of meats, fruits, berries, roots, fungus and insects. The Mbuti's food supply is always plentiful, this is due to the habitat they live in and the small number of people living off of any given area. The Shoshone on the other hand live more like a scavengers because of their environment. Meat is rare, they tend to live off the plant life in the forest. A large portion of the Shoshone's diet is plant life. The Kung have a fairly balanced diet of plants and animals but water is a limited resource. For the Kung the reason for moving is to stay where the water is. In the dry season the Kung will all live in close quarters near the permanent water holes. But as the rainy season comes they will be able to spread throughout the region. Foraging societies share three major traits. All of these societies share the work that must be done in the camp. They all live in camps, meaning they never stay in an area for an extended amount of time.
Sunday, November 10, 2019
I text while driving. I try not to, but I do. And I know what you're thinking. I get it. You think I'm careless. You think I'm reckless. You think I'm dangerous. You say I'm an accident waiting to happen; that I'll probably get killed one day; that I might even kill you. I tell you now, I understand. But I don't care. I have places to be, text messages to send. At times I've been brilliant, multitasking to perfection; typing Ã¢â¬ËBrobdingnagian' while making a double lane change in Austin rush-hour traffic.Other times I've swerved, or barely hit the brake in time, only to throw my phone in the backseat and make that same promise to never again send a text message while operating a vehicle. Okay, so I care. But despite caring, I've found that there isn't a scare, short of an accident, that will deter me from texting while driving. Not even the law. And being that I'd rather not die, or kill you, all in the name of an anecdotal text that just as well could have been typed while in pa rk, I've since developed a set of rules.These rules, when followed, have been as fool-proof as directions for walking while chewing a piece of gum (excuse the triteness). I no longer swerve. I'm no longer forced to slam on my brakes. And for the past eight months, my Ã¢â¬Å"Texting While Driving ProtocolÃ¢â¬ has saved both our lives. Rule 1: Predict the Future. Know how the road will unfold as you divert your attention to your phone. As Ã¢â¬Å"10 and 2Ã¢â¬ drivers, we're already required to predict the actions of and be accountable for all objects in and around our path (i. e cars, pedestrians, cyclists, animals).Compare and Contrast Driving in the Winter and Driving in the SummerWe're regular clairvoyants. And sure, we have laws which aid us in predicting those intended actions of others, but that only further supports my next point: It is not required that our senses be entirely engaged at all times for us to Ã¢â¬Å"trustÃ¢â¬ while on the road; that to look away from the road for x amount of time, as long as a driver can account for all future events that may unfold within the distance travelled during x, is no less safe than looking both ways before one walks across a street, which also requires a level of anticipation.Rule 2: Reestablish your whereabouts after each written word. This means you must LOOK UP after each word you type, and predict 2-3 more seconds of future before typing your next word. Rule 3: Use shorthand. Yes, shorthand. The same shorthand that has been slowly killing language since man's invention of time and his subsequent inventions to save it. But this lax variation of language will keep you in the 2-3 seconds per word range. And I know, you're a writer with high grammatical standards. You punctuate all of your texts. How dare I suggest you replace Ã¢â¬Å"tonightÃ¢â¬ with Ã¢â¬Å"2niteÃ¢â¬ ?Just remember: Life > Language. Rule 4: Hold your phone as close to the top of the steering wheel as possible. This will allow for gre ater access to your peripheral vision, and may help you catch any unforetold objects. But not too high! Unless the law is still on your side. Rule 5: Do NOT text while making a turn. Not only is it tougher to sense the position of your vehicle in its designated lane, but you also lose any advantage gained by holding your phone in its peripheral position. With these rules in mind, I guarantee that you will be a better driver.
Friday, November 8, 2019
PERSONAL ASSERTIVENESS IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATIONS essays Assertiveness is a necessary quality for success in virtually any field, and it is often helpful in non-business dealings and relationships, the other hand, assertiveness is a double-edged sword, because in some several elements required for assertiveness can cross the line into Confidence is a necessary component of being assertive, because one able to articulate his position, in the first place. Even in normal interactions, lack of confidence can undermine one's ability to function because a characteristic feature of lacking confidence is reluctance to one's self, verbally. Substantially more confidence is required in negotiations, or in any exchange of differing points of view, in Occasionally, someone utterly lacking confidence attempts to adopt more assertive speech patterns, but their mannerisms and body language them away after a short time. They may try to overcompensate by attempting dominate situations, or to assert themselves early, purely as a control They rarely succeed in maintaining the charade, because only the gross social interaction (such as the choice of when to speak or how loud) are controllable in this manner. Finer aspects of social interaction include and patterns of establishing eye contact that cannot be readily controlled less in a manner that is convincing to others.(Zimbardo, 1987) Non-assertive behavior typically includes a submissive search for through eye contact prior to expressing one's self, which is perceptible to else taking part in (or witnessing) the exchange. Experiments where films of negotiations and social exchanges without being able to hear any conversation establish that confidence (and its absence) are transmitted perceptively, merely by virtue of visual cues.(Gerrig, 2001) Even for confident people, appropriate assertiveness is partly a skill. While shy people must overcome their discomfort expressin...
Wednesday, November 6, 2019
Learn More About the Types of Coffee Served in Italy Espresso,Ã caffÃ ¨ normale,Ã cappuccino; sometimes it seems that there are as many types of coffee in Italy as there areÃ kinds of pasta. And just like pasta, Italian coffee is an art form with many customs and traditions. Whether its aÃ caffÃ ¨ correttoÃ thrown back like a shot, acappuccinoÃ and brioche for breakfast or aÃ granita di caffÃ ¨ con pannaÃ to cool off from the hot midday sun, in Italy, there is a coffee drink specific for every time and mood. The PerfectÃ Tazza Want to start a heated discussion in Italy? Ask a group of friends how to make a perfect cup of stove top espresso! There are fully automatic espresso makers, pump-driven espresso machines, lever piston espresso machines, and, of course, the classicÃ aluminum espresso coffee makerÃ (also called a moka pot or The Moka Express), which was invented in the 1930s. Italian coffeeÃ tifosiÃ in search of the perfect cup will also debate various factors such as bean type,Ã blade vs. burr grinders, tamp pressure, water temperature and humidity. Caffeine junkies not only have their favorite localÃ torrefazioneÃ (coffee house), but even prefer certain Ã baristiÃ because of their ability to deliver a perfectÃ caffÃ ¨ espresso. S Marks the Pot (of Coffee) No one expects a first-time visitor to Italy to trill their rs like a native Italian speaker. But if you dont want to be labeledÃ maleducatoÃ when ordering a coffee in Italy itsÃ espresso, not expresso. Both will quicken your heart rate, but anÃ expressoÃ is a fast train and anÃ espressois a small cup of very strong coffee. AndÃ caffÃ ¨Ã (with two fs) is both the beverage and the locale that serves it. What kind of coffee should you order in a caffÃ ¨? The possibilities can be as daunting as aÃ Starbucks menu. Below is a list of the most popular caffeine-laden drinks. Keep in mind, too, Italians generally dont drink coffee with any meal except breakfast. Coffee is often ordered after a meal and - Ã che vergogna!Ã - only the unwitting tourist will order a cappuccino in a restaurant after lunch or dinner. When ordering an after-dinner coffee, do not ask for an espresso, ask for un caffÃ ¨, per favore. Italian Vocabulary List: Coffee caffÃ ¨ (espresso)- a small cup of very strong coffee, i.e., espressocaffÃ ¨ Americano- American-style coffee, but stronger; weaker than espresso and served in a large cupcaffÃ ¨ corretto- coffee corrected with a shot of grappa, cognac, or another spiritcaffÃ ¨ doppio- double espressocaffÃ ¨ freddo- iced coffeecaffÃ ¨ Hag- decaffeinated coffeecaffÃ ¨ latte- hot milk mixed with coffee and served in a glass for breakfastcaffÃ ¨ macchiato- espresso stained with a drop of steamed milk: small version of a cappuccinocaffÃ ¨ marocchino- espresso with a dash of hot milk and cacao powdercaffÃ ¨ schiumato- similar to a macchiato, but with milk foam insteadcaffÃ ¨ stretto- espresso with less water; rocket fuel!cappuccino- espresso infused with steamed milk and drunk in the morning, but never after lunch or dinnergranita di caffÃ ¨ con panna- frozen, iced beverage (similar to a slush, but ice shavings make it authentic) and topped with whipped creamshakerato- espresso with sugar shak en to a froth over ice and topped with foam
Monday, November 4, 2019
The Glass Menagerie - Essay Example The Glass Menagerie is Ã¢â¬Å"his most intimate and personal playÃ¢â¬ , and this intimacy allows the audience to enter some of the more vulnerable sides of what may be argued to be WilliamsÃ¢â¬â¢s own character through Laura. We see the delicacy of her mind in the most intimate detail, and come away from the play understanding our own vulnerabilities better. Laura is crippled in two ways: physically and emotionally. The weight of her psychological problems is embodied by her physical condition, which never allows the audience to forget what miseries the world may bring to an individual. One might contrast the effect of her crippled self on her with that of ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Richard III . He loathes the world and seeks vengeance upon it because of what fate has dealt to him, she reveals an almost martyr-like compassion towards others because of her misfortune. Thus she sheds genuine tears of sadness over TomÃ¢â¬â¢s unhappiness, as is revealed by Amanda in Scene 4. She is a stark contrast to the embittered selfishness of most of the characters. Williams uses an effective dramatic technique to make her even more mysterious: he gives her the fewest lines and yet much of the plot seems to revolve around her. As one online source puts it, Ã¢â¬Å"she is the axis around which the plot turns, and the most prominent symbols Ã¢â¬â blue roses, the glass unicorn, the entire glass menagerie Ã¢â¬â all in some sense represent her.Ã¢â¬ Laura may the fulcrum around which the other characters revolve, but she is also deeply involved in their lives. Laura is used by other characters to valorize their own feelings, or to recapture aspects of their personality that they think they have lost. For example, Amanda contrasts herself with LauraÃ¢â¬â¢s poor physical state in order to exemplify the joyous glamour of her own youth and to suggest that she can also somehow rekindle that youth through Laura. Echoes of Miss Havisham
Friday, November 1, 2019
The reproductive system - Essay Example The penis consists of three columns of erectile tissue wrapped in connective tissue covered with skin. The penis has a root, body (shaft), and glans penis. The corpus spongiosum expands at the distal end to form the glans penis. The urethra extends throughout the length of the corpus spongiosum and opens through the external urethral orifice at the tip of the glans penis. A loose fold of skin, called the prepuce, or foreskin, covers the penis (Young et al, 2000). The male sexual response includes erection and orgasm accompanied by ejaculation of semen. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates spermatogenesis; luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone; and testosterone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics and spermatogenesis (Young et al, 2000). A womans reproductive cycles last from menarche to menopause. The female reproductive organs include the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, accessory glands, and external genital organs. The organs of the female reproductive system create and maintain the female egg cells (ova). It transports the ova to be fertilized by sperm, provides a location for the developing fetus and moves the fetus out at the end of the development period as well as producing female sex hormones (Young et al, 2000). Ovaries, the primary female reproductive organs, are solid structures about the size and shape of an almond located in shallow depressions, ovarian fossae, one on each side of the uterus, in the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity (Young et al, 2000). Two uterine tubes, Fallopian tubes, are connected with each ovary. Once inside the Fallopian tube, the oocyte is moved along by the rhythmic beating of cilia on the epithelial lining and by peristaltic action of the smooth muscle in the wall of the tube. The passage through the Fallopian tube takes about seven days and because the oocyte is fertile for only 24 to 48
Wednesday, October 30, 2019
Bethany Qualls's essay - Assignment Example Most arguments and facts expressed in QuallsÃ¢â¬â¢ essay have their basis on evidence, examples, and references. Formality in academic writing is a vital aspect. An academic paper should be free of slang and informal words including contractions (Beard 474). QuallsÃ¢â¬â¢ essay satisfies the standards of formality in academic writings. It is free of informal words and contractions. Besides formality, clear statement of a writerÃ¢â¬â¢s point of view is imperative. While stating the point of view, writers avoid using second person pronouns. Instead, third person pronouns are best applicable with exceptions of instances when first person pronouns use is justified. QuallsÃ¢â¬â¢ essay is appropriate in expressing views using third person pronouns and, in some instance, the first person. Although QuallsÃ¢â¬â¢ essay conforms to the standards of a formal and well-written academic paper, there are notable points that demand improvement. In some instances, Qualls does not use direct and succinct statements. Sentences appear vague, long or complicated and, therefore, unclear. An example is the use of shortened words in QuallsÃ¢â¬â¢ essay. The sentence, Ã¢â¬Å"I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enthusiastic about his visit,Ã¢â¬ contains a shortened word. Instead of using Ã¢â¬Å"wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t,Ã¢â¬ Qualls should use Ã¢â¬Å"was
Monday, October 28, 2019
Definition Essay Essay Ambition; a strong desire to do or to achieve something, typically requiring determination and hard work. Many people have different ambitions in life so the word ambition would have different definitions, depending on whom you ask. To me ambition is a burning urge and desire to achieve your goals or succeed. Ambition applies to dedication, motivation and time. I have many ambitions to achieve in a set period of time. For example my education, I would like to complete my Bachelors in Electrical Engineering within four years. Within time motivates me to achieve my ambitions of obtaining that bachelor degree. Ambition in other words is the motive force needed to propel all of us to work towards our set cherished goals. It is the dynamic inner force that has led people from all walks of life to cleave to a new path, set a new vision and fight through hurdles to win with honor. Try and try again. You have to fail early to be able to succeed. As Bruce Lee once said Ã¢â¬Å"you have fall down 7 times get up 8.Ã¢â¬ That never-say die attitude is ambition. Many athletes in the collegiate level have a desire to be eligible to play their sport and make a living off of it. Nothing is handed to a person, they work their buttocks off and put in countless hours of practice and pride into what they do. Acknowledging the hard work and struggles that an athlete goes through shows their desire and passion for what they do and why they love it. Ambition is built into a person, a person who wants to become successful and to be able to provide for not only their selves but for their family. My personal ambition is contingent on my professional aspirations. My personal ambition is to be able to give back to my parents for all they have done to support my sister and me. I have always had the ambition to be able to make enough to support for them in the future and give them anything they want. My ideal happiness is to pay off the mortgage for the house and see the happiness in both of their faces. The desire to become successful and to be able to provide for my parents applies to myÃ uncle who is also an electrical engineer that lives in California. My uncle is able to provide for his two kids and his stay at home wife. They own a 5 bedroom house in San Diego and they are living luxurious. Seeing my uncle being able to provide gives me the ambition to become successful as he is and do the same. Obviously, ambition here has a healthy role to play. Engineering has always been my forte. I love designing and building and to be able to do it with electricity is humbling. 4 Years of my life is required to be eligible for my bachelors and it is something that I am looking forward too. Having the guidance of my uncle and other successful peers gives me a sigh of relief and eagerness to finish and be able to hold that diploma in the end keeps me going. Risking countless hours of studying, all-nighters, and no social life will be financially rewarding in the end. I have to stay humble. My parents expectations did affect me because I saw how hard they worked to bring me up and make my life easier. My family has nurtured me in a respectable way of life. That is why I have chosen to become an EE because it fulfills my ambition and is pleasing to my parents by me making a decent living. Therefore, one of my ambitions will be achieved because EE blends an ethically satisfying job and a healthy contentment to my life. Being able to travel and experiencing new outcomes will be a blessing in disguise. Accomplishing my short term and long term goal will be something I look forward to in life. Once those goals are accomplished, new goals will be made and the ambition to accomplish those goals will take way. Ambition is a powerful word that has a powerful meaning in my life. A brief description on ambition is to be able to accomplish what is desired. I have an ambition to accomplish my goals and to be able to provide for my parents and myself. My ambition to become successful in life takes place in my heart. If I work hard for what I want, then IÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to take pride on for what I worked for. Ones action should be directed towards the nations prosperity. I should strive hard honestly, sincerely and with dedication to achieve it. The hard work should pay off and the journey to my bachelorÃ¢â¬â¢s degree should be a tough battle, nothing is given but is earned.
Saturday, October 26, 2019
Pipes and Cigars Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The 1991 edition of The World Book Encyclopedia defines a cigar exactly as follows Ã¢â¬Å"Cigar is a tight roll of dried tobacco used for smoking. Cigars range in size from short, slim cigarillos to long, slender panetelas and large, fat coronas. The majority of cigars are made by machines, but the more expensive ones are hand-rolled. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Most cigars consist of three parts and three types of tobaccos. Folded filler tobacco leaves make up most of the body of a cigar. The filler is held together and surrounded by a binder leaf. A wrapper leaf is wound around the binder. Some inexpensive cigars have as their binders or wrappers reconstituted tobacco sheets. These sheets are made of coarse or damaged tobacco leaves that have been ground up and mixed with adhesive.Ã¢â¬ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã And in the definition of pipes it says in a short summary that a pipe is used for smoking tobacco. It has been around for over 2,000 years they were brought to Europe in the 1500Ã¢â¬â¢s. Indians smoked pipes during celebrations and religious ceremonies and used it as a symbol of peace. Pipes are made of briar, which is a hard wood. Meerschaum is a white clay used to make pipes. Porcelain is also used to make pipes. In the Middle East the hookah or water pipe is popular. Pipes have been collected and smoked for many years and there are clubs that meet to buy sell and trade old and new pipes. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã These articles inform you but not well. Other articles on drugs or even cigarettes contain dangers and health risks, and as I looked for more information on the internet I found only shops and clubs. Then I realized that the dangers of pipes and cigars arenÃ¢â¬â¢t very well known and the only places that had them were health organizations and what they had surprised me because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t know much about it either. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã When compared to non-smokers, cigar smokers have about four times greater risk of dying of lung cancer.
Thursday, October 24, 2019
What invention would the world be better off without, and why? One major substance in the world can change your life forever. The most popular invention that I feel the world can go without is Cocaine. This drug can cause much turmoil in your life. Just one try and you can become an addict. An addiction is a habit that can't be broken unless you have assistance. Cocaine can cause you to have health Issues, family Issues and cause you to Illustrate.Cocaine Is a white substance sold on the street. This Is a drug that can cause serious health Issues. Some people Intake the drug through the noise sniffing It up through the nostrils. This can cause nose bleeds. A constant sniffing, deterioration of brain cells. Another way to intake the cocaine substance is liquid formula shooting it through the veins with a stencil. Besides the minor health issues that occur, u can also cause your heart to explode, have seizures, and go into traumatic shock. This is a absence that can kill you.Besides th e fact that cocaine is an illegal drug and can kill you. For females that are with child this drug can also cause pregnancy Issues. Females can have children with birth defects such as: A. D. H. D, Down syndrome, hearing Impaired, vision impaired, not fully developed. Sometimes you even loose the baby. If the child does make It through the turmoil of drug abuse sometimes the child will come out addicted to the substance. Some parents even sell their child for the drugs because hey just have to have it.Or even come out as a ward of the state, because the parent is a drug abuser and has lost everything. So, now that you know the drug is illegal and can be fatal. Remember that the drug is not Just a white powdery substance, but can also be sold toy in little rocks. This drug can make u very delusional, causing you to see things that are not there. You won't be able to remember anything that has happened or is going too happened. This drug causes the nerve system to slow down can someti mes cause your reheating to be very shallow or even to speed giving you a rush.But the crash after It all will leave you shattered. Cocaine is a drug that will take everything away from you. Even family. A white lives. And only leaving hurt turmoil, and death behind. This is a drug that was invented for people to get rich and watch others loose all that is important. I feel this invention would be an invention that the world would be better off without. Cocaine is still killing people breaking up families and leaving people with great regret. So say no to this invention.
Wednesday, October 23, 2019
Since the beginning of time, the built environment has been an integral part in providing shelter needs for men, women and children. Maslow (1943) formulated that shelter is a basic requirement of humans. In the future, humans will have to construct sustainable shelter otherwise would they would risk depleting resources for subsequent generations. Construction is an example of a multitasking activity. The lifecycle of construction can be broken into phases. Achieving building sustainability in modern environment requires a better understanding of environmental impacts. Impacts such as climate change, associated costs, as well as utilising benchmarking scale to measure across a whole range of building types and occupancies. This report will discuss building sustainability, the constraints that stake holders of built environment face, and the role of architects in the process of constructing sustainable buildings. Conceptually, sustainability is allowing present generation to meet its needs without depriving later generations of a way to meet theirs. According to Meckler (2004), building sustainability means to Ã¢â¬Å"provide a safe, healthy, comfortable indoor environment while simultaneously limit the reduction of the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s natural resourcesÃ¢â¬ . Architects, with their unique position within the built environment, are well equipped to meet the challenges of sustainability in the built environment. The building and construction industry possesses a high ability to be innovative (Meckler 2004), and through this innovation that it would create new methods and processes resulting in constructing improved sustainable buildings that can be serve as subsequent yearÃ¢â¬â¢s benchmark to beat. The construction industry has invested in research and development into sustainability in order to gain a clearer understanding the effect of building on the environment and reducing the impact of buildings on the environment. The common goal is to be Ã¢â¬Å"energy efficientÃ¢â¬ . Being energy efficient does not equate to being energy sustainable. The energy from the traditional fossil sources cannot be supplied without using further considerable amount of energy in supplying it. The efficiency of the energy lifecycle starting from the raw extraction of resources, preparation, transport, conversion and distribution to application may be up to 20%. To equate this in simple terms is that it takes approximately 5kWh to deliver 1kWh of energy for consumption. So in order to consume 1kWh of energy, the real term consumption is actually 6kWh. Numerous studies internationally have shown that operational energy consumes the main amount of total energy use in buildings during a typical service lifespan of approximately 50 years. This accounts for about 85Ã¢â¬â95% of total energy use (Thormark, 2005). From a residential perspective, there should be a focus more on the sustainable development of the residential buildings and urban constructions. The fundamental reason new and more energy-efficient technologies continue to be ignored and the technologies that are applied rarely perform as efficiently as they should is because of a lack of accountability for building energy performance in current building design and operation practices. The building and construction industry in Australia has made significant progress forward in the last 5 years to improve their environmental performance. This improvement has been in response to increased attention from local and state government policies regarding to Ecological Sustainable Development (ESD), as well as the availability of holistic environmental rating tools such as the Green Building Council of AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s Green Star rating tools. Architects factor in climatic variables into their thoughts as they design and plan houses, premises and buildings (Alnaser & Flanagan 2007). In hot dry regions such as in the Northern Territory, the built environment should be planned compactly to reduce the amount of surfaces exposed to solar radiation. In warm humid regions such as in Queensland, buildings should be openly spaced to maximize air movement between individual buildings. This would reduce the structure operational energy consumption and maximise Green Star rating. Green building is a tremendous growth area in design, construction and building materials. Green building has gained momentum due to the rise in energy costs and cost of building materials. The happy medium is somewhere between a combination of passive measures through optimal building design and active measures achieved through efficient mechanical system designed to control the indoor climate. These active measures mentioned above include utilizing renewable energy, such as solar energy, wind energy and geothermic energy, improving thermal performance of building structure, utilising daylight and energy efficient lightings, and developing new sustainable building materials (Thormark, 2005). Another aspect of sustainability that is often neglected is social sustainability. Social sustainability can be thought of as qualitative indicators that complement the development process. Some social sustainability objectives are to provide adequate local services and facilities to serve the development, to provide housing to meet the needs of the population, to provide high quality, habitable developments and where possible to preserve local culture and heritage. In any actual development, there is a need for other supporting elements to make it appealing and sustainable. An integral part of the development is to provide high quality energy efficient buildings for community activities such as musicals and outdoor space for open markets. By having such gatherings, the community will get a sense of ownership and will utilise the facility frequently. A salient aspect of sustainable development is to provide a mix of housing structures of all different types (Zhu & Lin, 2003). In order to achieve the objective of providing affordable housing; designs and construction must be of high quality and yet utilises minimal resources. Wherever possible, cultural heritage should be preserved through the reutilising of local valued buildings. If cultural preservation is achieved, the architectural design for the developments will reflect local heritage and use local materials. According to Williams and Dair (2007), there are 9 commonly identifiable barriers to achieving sustainability. Some of these barriers are: 1. Sustainability measure was not considered by stakeholders 2. Sustainability measure was not required by client (includes purchasers, tenants and end users) 3. The sustainability measure cost too much (in some cases the investor would not fund) Unless sustainability is on the agenda of the local planning government, stakeholders are unlikely to voluntarily put sustainability measures on their agenda. Stakeholders were simply bypassing sustainability issues altogether. As with most local government planning policies, there are strict guidelines regarding social objectives, such as meeting housing needs. If a policy is active at the forefront of development then they appeared on stakeholdersÃ¢â¬â¢ agendas. Many architects have the ability to succeed in achieving a higher star rating for energy efficiency for their built environment projects. They have been doing so for a while. The challenges of sustainability in the future should not be construed as extra attachments to how architects have designed in the past. Architects have the inherent ability to go back to the drawing board and to reinvent the design process to reflect the buildings needed for the future. Architects have a vital role to play. They are a part of key decision making mechanism in the building and construction industry. Going forward, their role will be inextricably linked to producing sustainable outcomes. There are many indicators for sustainable building design (Smith 2001). (a)Identifying possible sources to generate renewable electricity on location, i. e. like Building-Integrating Photovoltaic (BIPV). (b)Minimal usage of fossil fuel energy sources used during the lifetime of the building. (c)Ensuring that building management systems are user friendly simple to operate. (d)Implementing passive or active solar energy while employing heating and cooling systems which are fine tuned to the needs of the occupants with air-conditioning used only in exceptional circumstances. As we progress into the future, the need to provide shelter increases due to population growth. The building structures needed for this growing demand have to be environmentally and socially sustainable. There is a global increase in awareness of the diminishing supply of traditional fossil fuel resources. Fossil fuels make up the core heating and cooling energy consumption presently. In order to achieve sustainability and leave the next generation able to meet their needs, there are short term increased economic costs as the transition from traditional dependent on fossil fuels to alternative energy sources. These barriers have to be overcome and the role of the architect in the overall schema is extremely important. They possess the necessary design skills to adapt to the changing needs and produce sustainable commercial and residential . REFERENCES Ã¢â¬ ¢N. W. Alnaser_, R. Flanagan (2007). The need of sustainable buildings construction in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Building and Environment 42 (2007) 495Ã¢â¬â506 Ã¢â¬ ¢T. HARTMAN. (2008). A Vision for Energy Performance Integrating performance Ã¢â¬â monitoring initiatives to improve building sustainability. HPAC Engineering Ã¢â¬ ¢ May 2008 Ã¢â¬ ¢Maslow, A. H, (1943). A THEORY OF HUMAN MOTIVATION, Originally Published in Psychological Review, 50,370-396. 1943 Ã¢â¬ ¢C. McCabe. (2006). Environmental Sciences and Pollution Management. Sustainable building design in Australia. Eco-Architecture: Harmonisation between Architecture and Nature. Vol. 1, pp. 237-245. 7 Jun 2006. Ã¢â¬ ¢M. Meckler. (2004). Achieving Building Sustainability through Innovation Engineered Systems. Ã¢â¬ ¢L. Nervenga. Specifying for Sustainability. Architecture Australia 1904-2006 Ã¢â¬ ¢FS Smith. Architecture in a climate of a change: a guide to sustainable design. UK: Architectural Press, An imprint of Butterworth-Heinemann; 2001. Ã¢â¬ ¢C. Thormark. (2005). The effect of material choice on the total energy need and recycling potential of a building. Building and Environment 41 (2006) 1019Ã¢â¬â1026 Ã¢â¬ ¢K Williams & C Dair (2007). What Is Stopping Sustainable Building in England? Barriers Experienced by Stakeholders in Delivering Sustainable Developments. Sustainable Development Sust. Dev. 15, 135Ã¢â¬â147 Ã¢â¬ ¢Yingxin Zhu, Borong Lin (2003). Sustainable housing and urban construction in China. Energy and Buildings 36 (2004) 1287Ã¢â¬â1297