Thursday, December 12, 2019
Cosmic Redshift free essay sample
The new Physics of Cosmic Redshift Introduction:As we all know that light travels from source in a straight line(ray) according to concepts of classical ray optics. Redshift is the phenomenon by which light rays from distant stars that are observed on earth, show smaller frequency (longer wavelength) i. e. shifted towards the Ã¢â¬Å"redÃ¢â¬ end of the visible light region. This phenomenon of redshift is conventionally explained by the well-known Ã¢â¬Å"Doppler effectÃ¢â¬ . But according to the book Ã¢â¬Å"QED: The strange theory of light and matterÃ¢â¬ by Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman Redshift occurs due to the quantum mechanical propagation of photons. The Problem:Edwin HUBBLE discovered that light from distant stars exhibits longer wavelengths or reduced frequencies than that from similar radiation sources on Earth. All specific frequency lines in the electromagnetic spectrum of distant cosmic radiation sources appeared shifted towards the red end of the visible spectrum. His discovery therefore was called Ã¢â¬Å"astronomic redshiftÃ¢â¬ defined by the redshift ratio, z = ? / lo (1), ? l: the elongation of a specific wave length lo: the original wave length of emission at the source Frequency n and wavelength lo of the radiation are correlated by the velocity of light in vacuum, c = n x (2). From on its discovery the Redshift phenomenon was referred to the Ã¢â¬Å"Dopplereffect of wave dynamicsÃ¢â¬ , occurs when the source and the receiver are moving relative to each other. Hence this theory proved that all the distant stars , galaxies are moving away from the Earth i. e the universe is expanding. The apparent radial recession velocity away from Earth can be calculated following the Doppler equation: n/no= (1-v/c) (3) n: a specific frequency of the arriving light, no: corresponding frequency of emission at the source v : the recession velocity of the source c the velocity of light in vacuum Simultaneously, HUBBLE discovered that the apparent recession velocity of cosmic radiation sources increases proportionally to their distance r from Earth: v = H x r (4), H means the famous HUBBLE-constant currently estimated at about 70 km/s per megaparsec or per 3. 6 million light-years. HubbleÃ¢â¬â¢s theory led the current view that the universe has formed from a gigantic explosion called Ã¢â¬Å" the Big BangÃ¢â¬ , which spontaneously arose from a tiny volume of matter at unimaginably high temperature followed up by adiabatic expansion and the condensation of matter while cooling down. Apparently, this expansion process is still going on today. Following HUBBLE? s law (4), the escape velocity of an extremely distant galaxy might gain ultimately the velocity of light in vacuum, meaning its redshift ratio would theoretically equal unity. Physically of course, this is impossible nevertheless redshift ratios of z=5 and even z=7 have been measured in recent years showing supernova explosions, which apparently occurred further away from Earth than the age of the Universe postulated at about 14 billion light-years. In addition, as well known, various other inconsistencies weigh upon the Big Bang theory and many a scientist therefore questions this view. The new theory (methods used and result): The new theory uses the concepts from the Ã¢â¬Å"quantum electrodynamicsÃ¢â¬ . He (Richard Feynman) explained the quantum mechanics of the linear propagation of photons. He showed that from the countless number of radiations that are emitted from the source only those are really effective which reach the source (cover the distance b/w them) via straight line and in close company i. e. when they cover the distance in the shortest possible time. All other dispersed photons take larger time to reach to the receiver and hence are ineffective. He said that the straight stream of photons emitted from the distant source to the Earth will meet/collide innumerous bodies (such as stars, galaxies, planets, comets, meteorites, grains, etc. hich are swirling around in the universe with a typical speed of few hundreds kilometers per second) through which the photons can not pass. When those bodies cross a straight ray of light, this ray will be interrupted shortly and all photons dropping onto the bodies will be removed from the stream independently of their individual energy or frequency. After many such interruptions only the few remaining photons will reach the Earth and the frequency of these radiations arriving on the Earth exhibit lower frequencies because the dispersed photons did not rech in time to the earth. Thus the frequency shifts towards the red end of the visible region (spectrum). As the number of interruptions depend (directly proportional) on the distance between the source and the destination, the redshift ration is also directly proportional to the distance between the source and the receiver ( Earth ). Thus this theory confirms the HubbleÃ¢â¬â¢s discovery that the redshift ratio depends upon the distance. HUBBLE? s law still implies another connection. When replacing in equation (4) the recession velocity v by the product z x c, i. e. y a fraction of the ultimate velocity of light, an interesting correlation arises: z = H/c x r (5). The constant factor H/c can be regarded as a modified HUBBLE-constant, which amounts to 0. 00023 per megaparsec or 0. 00007 per million light-years. This modified HUBBLE-constant signifies the loss of photons suffered by a beam of light, which has traveled one million light-years through the Universe. It is a very small loss of photons in fact ov er such big distance, confirming our experience that the Universe is largely empty of solid matter. The reciprocal of the modified HUBBLE-constant i. e. 1/0. 00007 gives 14 billion light-years, in accordance with the postulated age of our Universe following the conventional theory. However, the meaning is different. It shows namely that ordinary starlight cannot propagate further through the Universe than 14 billion lightyears. All photons grouped in a straight light beam from a remote source to the Earth would have got lost due to the absorption effect of celestial matter. Usually, we cannot look deeper into the Universe than this distance, corresponding theoretically to a redshift ratio of unity. However, what about those bigger redshift ratios of z=5 or even z=7, which have been observed in recent time? We know from nuclear physics that energetic radiation penetrating through a shielding medium will be absorbed according to the general correlation, E = Eo x e^Ã µ(gama) (6), E means the radiation energy behind the shield, Eo the energy of emission at the source, the absorption coefficient of the shielding medium and r the traveling distance through the medium. In the present case, it makes sense to take the modified HUBBLE-constant H/c as a cosmic photon absorption coefficient and r as traveling distance of a stream of photons through the Universe. The energy of photons emitted by a heat source corresponds to the well-known correlation, E = kxT (7), T: the surface temperature of the source k: is the BOLTZMANN-constant On the other hand, the photon energy corresponds to PLANCKs equation, E = h x n (8), h is the PLANCK-constant and n the frequency of the photons. From equations (6), (7), and (8) follow the correlations, n/no = T/To and E / Eo = e-H/c . r (9). Referring to the previous equations (1) and (2), one finds that the cosmic redshift ratio equals z = e H/c . r Ã¢â¬â 1 (10). The distance of a cosmic radiation source therefore can be estimated from its redshift ratio according to r = 1 / H/c x ln (z + 1) (11), with H/c = 0. 00007 per million light-year. For a redshift ratio of z=1, for instance, one finds 9. 9 billion light-years, and for z=5 a cosmic distance of 25. 6 billion light-years. Conclusion: -According to this new theory more accurate age of universe can be calculated -In contrast to the traditional redshift theory, the present new physics of cosmic redshift doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t show any upper limit of Ã¢â¬ËzÃ¢â¬â¢ or any restricted age of our Universe respectively. Referring to the aforementioned equations, the cosmic redshift ratio also equals, z = To/T Ã¢â¬â 1 (12), i. e. it is proportional to the ratio of the surface temperature of a cosmic radiation source To and its apparent temperature T observed on Earth. The light rays from a remote cluster of galaxies at an average surface temperature of about 5800Ã °K as our sun would show the apparent temperature of 970Ã °K (700Ã °C) on Earth, when arriving from a cosmic distance of z=5 or 25. 6 billion light-years. This cluster, of which most of the photons got lost on the way to Earth, would be invisible to ordinary optical telescopes. However, cosmic radiation sources of much higher surface temperatures or bigger emission energy like supernova explosions would still be visible over such extraordinary distances, which largely exceed the age of our Universe as postulated from the big-bang hypothesis. taken from the paper itself) -In contrast to the conventional theory of cosmic redshift, the present new physics does not present any difficulty to explain those observations. In addition, this physics still offers another interesting conclusion.