Wednesday, July 31, 2019
The Cold War was a contest between the USA and the Soviet Union. It led to the existence of thousands of nuclear weapons, two universal ideologies in conflict, and two different self-images, the United States championing a world made safe for democracy. Its opponent, the Soviet Union advocated world Communism. The United States prides itself on its heritage of freedom, a refuge for persecuted religious groups, a land of liberty that successfully rebelled against the imperial power of Britain in 1776. Its guiding principles were the protection of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life, liberty and pursuit of happiness and the establishment of a constitution that embodied the best political idea of modern times, a system of checks and balances so that the president, Congress or parliament and judiciary or Supreme Court shared power, checking each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s work to guard against dictatorship. While the United States did not always live up to its ideals, nonetheless, on paper at least, it looked good compared to its Cold War rival, the Soviet Union. Led by a murderous dictator, Joseph Stalin (1928 to 1953), the Soviet government was brutal, outlawing all opposition, banned political parties opposed to the Communist Party, murdered millions and set up a vast prison camp system known as the Gulag. In the years 1937-38 alone, Stalin ordered the execution of one million citizens of the Soviet Union. In the fifty years of the Cold War, the United States only executed two of its own citizens, the husband and wife Rosenberg spy team. Even though the Rosenbergs should not have been executed because their crimes were tiny in the context of the Civil War, the difference between the United States and the Soviet Union in terms of political mass murder of its own citizens is obvious. Despite this fact, one third of the world went the Communist way and other countries were tempted by the promises of Communism. How could this be? In theory, Communism promised a more equal world and at its greatest extent in the 1970s, Communist governments ruled one third of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s people. These were mostly poor countries looking for a quick way to industrialise. These countries looked upon the United States as a champion of the rich and powerful, an exploitative superpower that exported its economic system of capitalism only because it suited its interests to do so. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the United States strides the world as the sole superpower. The United States maintains its grip on this unipolar world without having to make too much effort. The United States spends only about 5-6% of its economy (its gross national product) on defense. The Soviet Union spent somewhere between 20% and 33% of its economy to try to keep up with the United States during the Cold War. It couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t keep up the pace. The position of the United States has declined only slightly in the twentieth century. In 1928, its economy was four times the size of its nearest rival (France) and in 1950 its economy was three times the size of its nearest rival (the Soviet Union). It is not just a question of economic or military power. American films and popular music dominated the mass culture of the world from World War One to the present day. In 1994, the biggest-selling film in Austria, France, Germany, Argentina and Mexico was the The Lion King, an American cartoon. The Flinstones was the best-selling film in Poland and Turkey. Forrest Gump won Finland and Norway. It is important to remember that power is projected and wars can be won not just by military and economic means but also by winning what is now an international culture war. A reluctant empire? The United States expanded its frontier in North America throughout the eighteenth century and after victory over Spain in 1898 became a maritime power whose empire stretched as far west as the Philippines. Ever since the Monroe Doctrine of 1823, the United States has pledged itself to prevent the European powers from intervening in the western hemisphere, specifically Latin America. Following its victory over Spain in 1898, the Untied States arrived as a world power. For many Native Americans and African-American slaves, some of the rhetoric of freedom did not ring true. But AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s promise of freedom and opportunity attracted migrants from all over the world. They arrived in New York at the rate of a million a year in the early 1900s. As a result of EuropeÃ¢â¬â¢s self-destruction in World War One (1914-18), the United States became the dominant economic and political power in the world. It would later describe itself as a reluctant empire, a democratic state whose aim was to spread its ideals over the world but not to control in the way that European empires had done in the past. But what would it do with this power? Britain and France, weakened by the loss of Russia through revolution, were able to overcome Germany only with AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s help. Wilson believed that the values of the United States were in fact universal values of peace and democracy. In 1918 Woodrow Wilson, the American president published his Fourteen Points which called for a democratic peace based on the rights of self determination of all nations and the setting up of an international body, the League of Nations, to solve conflicts. But the world was changing. In Russia in 1917 Lenin and his Communist Party had come to power. Even worse for Wilson, his ideas were rejected in his own country, the United States. Wilson was pleased that the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War One established a League of Nations, but then found that the United States would not join. The League of Nations was rejected by the Senate, the upper house of the US Congress. Instead the Untied States tried to secure its future through the Washington Conference of 1921-22 which agreed that the US Navy should be of equal strength to the largest navy in the world, the British. In the 1920s and 30s, American foreign policy was dominated by isolationism, a refusal to intervene in Europe even when fasicsts, nazis and communists were on the march against American-style democracy in Europe. Those who support American power in the world today still worry that if the rest of the world criticises the United States too much it will retreat into its shell again and leave Europe and Australia at the mercy of a new (presumably Asian) religious fascim. Despite or because of its spectacular economic growth, American capitalism hit a major snag in the Great Depression that began in 1929 and economic problems increased the mood of isolationism in the US public, that is a mood of cutting the United States off from the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s troubles. The president to take the US out of the Depression was Franklin D. Roosevelt, who introduced his New Deal. It was Roosevelt who would take the USA into the Second World War but only after Japan attacked Pearl Harbour in 1941, putting an end to the argument for isolation. The USA suffered more than three hundred thousand deaths in World War Two, mostly soldiers. But as in World War One this was a relatively small price to pay for what was a huge victory. The Soviet Union now under Joseph Stalin lost 27-30 million people, the majority of which were civilians. At the end of world War Two, the United States had a new and powerful weapon, the atomic bomb that it had to used to force japan to surrender in 1945. Under president Truman from 1945-52, the United States staked out a new role as the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s policeman whose task it was to protect the democratic and free Ã¢â¬ËWestÃ¢â¬â¢ from the tyranny of StalinÃ¢â¬â¢s Communism in the Soviet Union. The United States would win the Cold War, in large part because of its continuing economic success. On the eve of its collapse in 1990, the GNP of the Soviet Union was approximately one third of that of the USA, even though the United States and the Soviet Union had almost identical population sizes. The secret to AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s success? Unlike the Soviet Union, which experimented with a new and untried economic model of a state-rune economy, the Untied States had a proven economic model of capitalism. It had its faults such as inequality and crises of unemployment but encouraged innovation and efficiency in a way that the Soviet system did not.
Tuesday, July 30, 2019
Efforts to improve the standard of living for humans, through the control of nature and the development of new products have also resulted in the pollution of the environment. Much of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s air, water, and land is now partially poisoned by pollution. Some places have become uninhabitable. This pollution exposes people all around the globe to new risks from disease. Many species of plants and animals have become endangered or are now extinct. The air pollution comes from lots of sources but the paper will be about air pollution cause by automobiles. As a result of tremendous amount of air pollution, primarily for automobile governments have passed laws to limit or reverse the threat of environmental pollution. There are lots of sources other than the automobile for air pollution. Nature itself is one of the causes. Sometime nature causes the air pollution by activities like a forest fire, volcanic, hurricane. These are temporary dislocations that nature balances and accommodates to modern economic development, however, sometimes disrupts natureÃ¢â¬â¢s delicate balance. The other source is from factories. Factories are release smokes and chemical in the air. In many places smoke from factories and cars combines with naturally occurring fog to form smog and create a midday sky. It had happened in London, Ã¢â¬Å"London, England, has been subjected to the danger of smog, long recognized as a potential cause of death, especially for elderly persons and those with severe respiratory ailmentsÃ¢â¬ (pollution). Transportation by car though, is the major source of air pollution. Early in the century human invented, internal combustion engine, engine that use fuel as gasoline or diesel. Those engines were used to manufacture an automobile for fast travel from one place to another. Because they were not much in use, those few cars were not enough to threat the environment. Those engines were not fast enough so mastermind humans invented bigger and faster engines and those take more fuel. When these engines burn fuels they introduce smoke and other, less visible, by products. Once they are released into the air, the products of incomplete combustion, particulate matter (soot, ash, and other solids), unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, various nitrogen oxides, ozone, and lead, undergo a series of chemical reactions in the presence of sunlight. The result is the dense haze characteristic of smog. Ã¢â¬Å"Smog may appear brownish in color when it contains high concentrations of nitrogen dioxide, or it may look blue-gray when it contains large amounts of ozoneÃ¢â¬ (Danger). The cumulative effect of air pollution poses a grave threat to humans and the environment. Smog causes number of children and elderly to die because childrenÃ¢â¬â¢ lungs are still developing, also they breath more rapidly than adults, and they play outdoor. Most elderly people loose the red cells that cause diseases to go out of control. That lead them to the development of chronic lung diseases. Ã¢â¬ The costs of air pollution are enormous. The American Lung Association sites sulfur-dioxide exposure as the third leading cause of lung disease after active and passive smokingÃ¢â¬ (Justification) Air pollution does not only cause health hazard but also cause acid rain to fall. Acid rain causes damage to structure or life. Plants and animal marine animal are most effected by acid rain. Acid rain or snow pollute the water and soil the major source for plants and marine species to survive. Acid rain or snow falls when sulfur dioxide emissions from exhaust of an internal combustion engine combine with particles of water in the atmosphere. Ã¢â¬Å"In Canada, Scandinavia, and the northeastern United States, acid rain is blamed for the deaths of thousands of lakes and streamsÃ¢â¬ (Acid rain). Another new and troubling form of air pollution comes from a variety of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons, also known as CFCs. For many years it was used by automobile industries. These chemicals were used in the air conditioning systems of the car. CFCs takes decade to get in the upper atmosphere but when it gets there it combines with other molecules. Then, by attaching themselves to molecules of ozone, CFCs transform and destroy the protective ozone layer. The result has been a sharp decline in the amount of ozone in the stratosphere. Ã¢â¬Å"At ground level, ozone is a threat to our lungs, but in the upper atmosphere ozone works as a shield to protect against ultraviolet radiation from the sunÃ¢â¬ (Ozone). If the ozone shield gets too thin or disappears, exposure to ultraviolet radiation can cause crop failures and the spread of epidemic diseases, skin cancer, and other disasters. The automobile has a big impact on over our environment. Today we have trillions of automobiles on the road. Each car produce smoke and chemicals that hazardous to our world. Sometimes people take that threat seriously and they try to find solution. It is necessary to burn fuel completely because unburn fuel release more chemicals than burned fuel. Most new cars have two oxygen sensors that monitor and control the burning of fuel (Toyota Eng. ). I think problem is that as oxygen sensors age, their warm-up response slows considerably. Even government says, Ã¢â¬Å"The major cause of air pollution is the internal-combustion engine of automobiles. Gasoline is never completely burned in the engine of a car, just as coal is never completely burned in the furnace of a steel millÃ¢â¬ (EPA). Other than two oxygen sensors some engineers came up with electric. These cars are good for our environment because they do not use gasoline as fuel. Even they donÃ¢â¬â¢t produce any smoke. It has some problem with it too like electric cars need to recharge more often and the are not fast enough. The other problem is that after while the batteries needs to replace. You imagine if trillion cars need to replace batteries than it will fill our safe chemical deposal sites in few years than we have more chemical waste in our environment. The solar cars are not that bad in the futuristic problems but cars arenÃ¢â¬â¢t fast enough. Ã¢â¬Å"Air pollution has been the target of some of the most complicated and far-reaching legislation ever enacted. In 1970, the United States Congress passed legislation aimed at curbing sources of air pollution and setting standards for air quality. A few years later, Congress passed laws designed to phase out the use of lead as an additive in gasolineÃ¢â¬ (EPA). That helped us because the level of lead in the average AmericanÃ¢â¬â¢s bloodstream has declined. We still didnÃ¢â¬â¢t do much about cause of acid rain and it is continually debated in North America and throughout Europe. Ã¢â¬Å"In late 1987, more than 20 nations signed an agreement to limit the production of CFCs and to work toward their eventual eliminationÃ¢â¬ (EPA).
Monday, July 29, 2019
Quote Expansions - Coursework Example at social movements engaged in resistance fail to give a clear picture of what the reality is concerning issues of violence against homosexuals or women. Dean states that whatever is taught at school under patriotic narrative is erroneous because it states that the law is an answer to all problems related to racial and sexist problems because it has created a fair and neutral America. Spade shows that this narrative is wrong because if it were true, the US should not experience issues of inequality or violence against sexual minorities such as lesbians and gays (Spade 21). The author supports this by stating that resistant political theorists and social movements show the concept of state violence through exposing the fact that the entities that are supposed to protect minority groups such as gays and women have failed to do so showing that the state is not the ideal place where people should look for protection (Spade 21). In agreement with Spade, it is indeed true that looking at institutions and the possession of power is a narrow view could be detrimental towards understanding significant issues in the society. While it is true that the state can contribute towards the lessening of violence and discrimination against sexual and gender minorities through formulation and implementation of laws, state and the laws as institutions could be the same places where violence erupts. For example, in Dual Dualisms by Fausto-Sterling, the author addresses issues of male or female and how the International Olympics Committee (IOC) deconstructed this in the 1960s. Focusing on testing of athletes, she states, Ã¢â¬Å"In part, IOC rules reflect cold war political anxieties: during the 1968 Olympics, for instance, the IOC instituted Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËscientificÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ sex testing in response to rumors that some Eastern European competitors were trying to win glory for the Communist cause by cheatingÃ¢â¬âhaving men masquerade as women to gain unfair advantageÃ¢â¬ (Fausto-Sterling 2). Here, the
Sunday, July 28, 2019
General System Theory and The Internet Design Idea - Essay Example Baran came up with the idea of establishing a network with no centralized switches, which could still operate even if many of the switching nodes were destroyed by a nuclear attack. The idea was first perceived as unrealistic and impossible but Baran worked on it, and it became successful. Initially, the APRANET, as it came to be known, was used by the US defense but later was adopted by military researchers and eventually spread to various universities. It was later named as Internet spreading to all nations. Nowadays it links people despite their geographical location and, hence, it is commonly referred to as the World Net or the Web (Bargh & McKenna, 2004). Internet has grown to be the most widely used means of communication. According to Tom (2002), it can be described as being non-centralized and unplanned. This is because it has given people freedom to choose who to communicate with, what to communicate and even what to hear. The Internet has broken the geographical boundaries and connected people worldwide. Internet widespread use has brought hot debates all over the world. Taking a general system theory perspective, Internet has had major positive impacts on social, political, economical, and even spiritual aspects of the society. Internet is used for research purposes. Learners around the globe are able to connect and share information from all parts of the world. Politicians get useful information on politics of their country and other countries over the same net. Economically, the commercial sector has benefited a lot from the Internet and has utilized it as the main medium of advertising and selling their products. However, as Sykttner (2006) points out, Internet is facing threats from the same qualities that contributed to its growth. It is argued that uncontrolled use of Internet has caused a lot of chaos in many countries. The Internet has been misused mainly by the commercial sector in advertising fake product or goods that do not
Saturday, July 27, 2019
Defending Descarter's Cogito Ergo Sum - Essay Example Hence, we should, I think, recognize that it is possible, to a certain extent, to think of things, which certainly do not have a physical form. The justification for my argument is grounded mainly on DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s Meditations. He decisively focused on the argument, as seen in the beginning of Meditations on First Philosophy, confidently carved the independent realms of religion and reason, and trusted that his effort would discreetly, but determinedly, re-establish reason to its legitimate place (Sarkar 2003). However, there are detractors of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Ëcogito ergo sumÃ¢â¬â¢ (I think, therefore, I am), such as the mostly overlooked philosopher Michel de Montaigne. Montaigne was the forerunner of Descartes, with perspectives on reason that have a great deal of influence on the theories of his descendants in France (Hatfield 2003). Edwin M. Curley claims that the evidence of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s existence is intertwined with cogitoÃ¢â¬â¢s premise in this sense (Sarkar 2 003, 110): Ã¢â¬Å"Descartes would hold that even the proposition Ã¢â¬ËI existÃ¢â¬â¢ is fully certain only if the rest of the argument of the Meditations goes through. We must buy all or nothing.Ã¢â¬ However, defending DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s cogito against critics, like Curley, is not the main objective of this paper. It is the primary objective of this paper to demonstrate that there is a contemporary form of the Cartesian CircleÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"I now seem to be able to lay it down as a general rule that whatever I perceive very clearly and distinctly is trueÃ¢â¬ (Lemos 2004, 45)Ã¢â¬âmore overwhelming than the previous version. We should address this contemporary Cartesian Circle. This new version of DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s magnum opus will be required as an unvarying cue soon after, when different approaches toward interpreting the cogito are broken up. Although I support the notion that we can exist even without physical form through thinking, I believe that DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢s c ogito has several flaws that have to be addressed in order to make the argument stronger. Certainly, the failure of Descartes to challenge his ability to reason is baffling, because his way of distrusting his senses would have offered him an almost perfect paradigm for distrusting his reason. Descartes could have created skepticisms about his Ã¢â¬ËthinkingÃ¢â¬â¢ that are similar to the skepticism about his senses (Dicker 1993). The first Cartesian Circle of the senses elaborates, and validates, the apparent argument that our senses at times mislead us; the next Cartesian Circle rationalizes a firmer argument, specifically, that at certain points in time we are incapable of making certain whether they mislead us or not (Dicker 1993); and ultimately, as stated in Lemos (2004), the last and most compelling Cartesian Circle is created, specifically, that there is no such thing as senses. Likewise, Descartes could have embarked on these ideas: an initial Cartesian Circle about reason , demonstrating how exercising reason at times deceive us; a next Cartesian Circle to demonstrate that at certain points in time we would be incapable of making sure whether we have used our reason rightfully; and ultimately (Moore 1962), a final Cartesian Circl
Type of community Absecon, New Jersey - Essay Example Absecon is a city in Atlantic County, in the Atlantic City metro area. The community name derives from Indian term variously translated as little stream" or "plenty (or place) of swans" The latitude of Absecon is 39.428N. The longitude is -74.496W. It is in the Eastern Standard time zone. Elevation is 23 feet. The estimated population, in 2003, was 7,835. .. Industries providing employment: Arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation and food services (29.7%), Educational, health and social services (19.0%), Retail trade (12.9%). Absecon-area historical tornado activity is below New Jersey state average. It is 50% smaller than the overall U.S. average. On 7/21/1983, a category 3 (max. wind speeds 158-206 mph) tornado 22.6 miles away from the Absecon city center caused between $500,000 and $5,000,000 in damages. On 11/4/1970, a category 2 (max. wind speeds 113-157 mph) tornado 5.6 miles away from the city center caused between $50,000 and $500,000 in damages. Hospitals/medical centers near Absecon: BETTY BACHARACH REHAB CENTER (about 6 miles; POMONA, NJ) ATLANTIC CITY MEDICAL CTR (about 7 miles; ATLANTIC CITY, NJ) SHORE MEMORIAL HOSPITAL (about 11 miles; SOMERS POINT, NJ) Airports certified for carrier operations nearest to Absecon: ATLANTIC CITY INTERNATIONAL (about 5 miles; ATLANTIC CITY, NJ; ID: ACY) MC GUIRE AFB (about 40 miles; WRIGHTSTOWN, NJ; ID: WRI) LAKEHURST NAES /MAXFIELD FIELD (about 43 miles; LAKEHURST, NJ; ID: NEL) Other public-use airports nearest to Absecon: ATLANTIC CITY MUNI/BADER FIELD (about 7 miles; ATLANTIC CITY, NJ; ID: AIY) STEEL PIER TAJ MAHAL (about 9 miles; ATLANTIC CITY, NJ; ID: 92N) OCEAN CITY MUNI (about 15 miles; OCEAN CITY, NJ; ID: 26N) Colleges/universities with over 2000 students nearest to Absecon: THE RICHARD STOCKTON COLLEGE OF NEW JERSEY (about 6 miles; POMONA, NJ; Full-time enrollment: 5,526) ATLANTIC CAPE COMMUNITY COLLEGE (about 18 miles; MAYS LANDING, NJ; FT enrollment: 3,086) BURLINGTON COUNTY COLLEGE (about 39 miles; PEMBERTON, NJ; FT enrollment: 3,751) OCEAN COUNTY COLLEGE (about 43 miles; TOMS RIVER, NJ; FT enrollment: 4,651) CAMDEN COUNTY
Friday, July 26, 2019
Seneca, On the Shortness of Time - Essay Example We understand the value of life through living. Those who delay and linger will always waste their time thinking about the future and not the present. In life, many people start living when their end is near. Long life is not guaranteed by chronological age. This only reminds us that one exists for a very long time. This is compared to the man whose ship has failed to sink but hit in a storm and later tossed by waves in circles. Such kind of a man usually thinks that he has traveled for a long way while in the real sense he has just been going in waves. These kinds of people realize how time passes quickly during their mortal danger. During this dangerous moment, they try their level best to use money to lengthen their lives. In other situations such kind of people uses their time as if it is a commodity which can be easily replaced any moment. Due to the fast movement of time, many people have been mistaken by thinking that it is very easy to postpone the preparations for the coming old age. This is why most people arrive as children at old age. According to the Seneca, life comprises three parts: Ã¢â¬Å"what will be, what is now and what has beenÃ¢â¬ . The past is the only secure part as it is outside control of fate and it cannot be easily hurt. Furthermore, Seneca implies that, Ã¢â¬Ëwhat isÃ¢â¬â¢ means that the present is short and passing. Thus, if a man occupies himself he will actually have no extra time for mental tranquility. Life is desperate for those who kept piling more riches, power and earthly pleasures and those who wasted time on superfluous matters. These people cheat time through lies and harmful behaviors and always cling towards illusionary youthful images. Thereafter, they wail because they claim their unaccomplished life as they lacked time to enjoy the fruits from their efforts and enjoy their dreams. In contrary, the wise time users are ever willing to march towards the end of their life. They live more years in religious creation,
Thursday, July 25, 2019
See uploaded question paper - Essay Example These provisions are fundamentally categorized as Consumer Protection Acts which further constitute of Sale of Goods Act 1979 and Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 in the European Union (EU) legislation1. With reference to the case situation witnessed by Greg when dealing with his supplier Sprewfit, this study will aim at recommending the consumer (i.e. Greg) with certain remedial measures to suffice his losses with the application of Sale of Goods Act 1979 and Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977. As observed in the case scenario, Greg was working on a new project of renovating a home and estate of Ã¢â¬Å"Downly AbbeyÃ¢â¬ , in the village named Downly. The required materials for the renovation project were supplied to him by Sprewfit. The company also took the contract that to serve with the required amount of plaster which would be used in the interiors of the home and estate of Ã¢â¬Å"Downly AbbeyÃ¢â¬ . After certain period of time, Greg noticed that the materials that were provided to him were of low quality, and certainly incompetent to suffice his requirements for a Grade II home and estate renovation project. ... There are certain specific contracts to which this particular act has been applicable. One of the most crucial norms of this law is that it is applicable only to the contract of the sales of goods that took place on or after the 1st of January 1884. It has been learnt that a sales contract is a contract where the seller agrees to transfer the possession of the goods or any other property in exchange of money which can also be referred as the price of the property or goods delivered. The goods sold may be of existing goods, owned or possessed by the seller or it may also be goods or property which would have to be manufactured after the contract is made. These types of goods are referred as called Ã¢â¬Ëfuture goodsÃ¢â¬â¢. As per the provisions mentioned in the act, the goods are sold under a certain terms and conditions that must be agreed by the seller as well as the buyer prior to the validation of the agreement. Notably, if the conditions are not satisfied by the seller which r esults to the losses suffered by the buyers, the entire issue would be termed as a breach of contract. Consequently, the buyer could claim for compensation or damage if such situations indicating breach of contract arises2. Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 The Unfair Contract Terms Act 1977 set to enforce additional limits on the level to which civil accountability for breach of contract on the basis of the inattention towards the liabilities, obligations and of duties of the sellers can be shunned by means of contract terms and otherwise. It has often been witnessed that companies focus on applying terms and conditions explicitly in their agreement offered to the customers mentioning certain aspects which might hinder the interests of the
Wednesday, July 24, 2019
Intellectual History - Term Paper Example One could call it the easiest way to explain natural processes. But it is also the only option available in order to interpret and articulate the world with limited knowledge, sophistication and maturity. In the eyes of the primitive humans, the natural phenomena such the setting of the sun, the changes in the season, the very wind that shakes the trees, and the rumble of thunder were beyond understanding. They were inexplicable, terrifying and spectacular all at the same time. By conceiving a metaphysical world, several mysteries were readily answered. The all powerful entity of god, for example, resolved the question of why man lives and dies, why the rain pours and why calamities strikes. Consider the many religious practices discovered as archaeologists unearthed and studied ancient civilizations. They provided invaluable insights not only in regards to how man perceived the world but how he came to terms with his relationship and experience with the world around him. Sacrifice i s a case in point. It is, as explained by Watson, both a gift and a coercion, provided to force the god to behave in a manner man wished: Ã¢â¬Å"to propitiate them, to defuse their anger, to get, to get rid of, to atoneÃ¢â¬ (134). Natural phenomena that impact humans such as disasters, famine, disease and those favorable events like good harvest and victory in war were attributed to the workings of the gods. Thus, they were considered to be subject to some semblance of human control through sacrifice. For example, when famine struck, primitive people would think that gods were displeased or their offerings inadequate and, hence, would redouble their efforts in the next agricultural cycle (136). The rituals evolved into more elaborate ceremonies with far more important sacrifices as way of life became more complex. Human sacrifices became a prominent form of sacrifice later on. According to Watson, this came about on the strength of the idea that it is a form of self-denial and th at the degree of importance of the offering came to be perceived as the more effective or the worthier sacrifice to appease the godsÃ¢â¬â¢ anger or to ask for far more important blessings (135). In the Greek island of Knossos, for instance, bone fragments of children offered as sacrifices to the gods were found. These remains, dating to 2000 BC, were said to have existed during the bull-worshipping Minoan civilization and were killed to avert catastrophe, such as the earthquake that eventually led to the civilizationÃ¢â¬â¢s demise (133). The most basic and the earliest sacrifices involved the use of objects, keeping the first seeds or the first ears of corn for the gods. Later the sacrifices became more elaborate and more cruel. This was a logical evolution in the backdrop of human ignorance about the natural processes that they observed on a daily basis. These were mysteries that occur constantly and they become the basis for the practices such as human sacrifice. The concept o f the after life also emerged early in human history. Ancient Egyptians, for example, were buried with their worldly goods in the belief that they would need the treasure in the after life. The Hindu religion also believes that the dead can be reborn. Watson explained that this was
Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Module 4 Case Assignment - Coursework Example e products of the company include basic food products as well as premium services like cooking recipes, labels and cooking lessons to the target and potential customer groups of the company. The outputs of the Whole Foods Market can be measured in terms of the revenues, goods and services, community impacts, job creation, shareholder value creation and service or policy outcomes. In this respect, the company shows high levels of efficiency and congruence. Additionally, the performances and the behaviors of the different departments, teams and business units of the company seem to be much effective in terms of maintaining standard, compliance and congruency. The main goals of the Whole Foods Market Company are to provide high quality and standard organic food to the target customer group in the market. Additionally, the quality of the food products marketed and sold by Whole Foods Market and the high level of social responsibility shown by the company add to the effectiveness of the company at the organizational level or topmost level of evaluation as per the Nadler and TushmanÃ¢â¬â¢s Congruence model. The main goal of Whole Food Markets as a leading organization in its industry of operation is to perform in a competitive, consistent and sustainable manner so that it can maintain its financial profitability and strong brand reputation in the markets of operation he outputs of the company seem to be sufficient in satisfying the corporate and strategic objectives set in the company. The Whole Foods Market is one of the leading organic food retailers and supermarkets in the world. The main mission of eh company is to promote the strength s of the organization and its individual entities by ensuring the delivery of high quality of products and services. Also, the company aspires to enhance the business to become the leading food retailer in the community as measured from the perspective of corporate social responsibility. The Whole Food Market is ranked 12th in the social
Monday, July 22, 2019
Manifest Destiny Essay The belief in Manifest Destiny, AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s right to expand westward, was popular among the Democratic Party, which paved the path for conflict in U.S. politics. In the 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s, Manifest Destiny was used as justification for the annexation of Texas, the war with Mexico, and to acquire portions of Oregon from the British. The debate over whether America really had a manifest destiny to expand all the way west or if it was used as an excuse to acquire more land led to debates in U. S. politics. Advocates of manifest destiny, mostly democratic, argued that the U.S., as a more advanced culture, had a God-given right to expand its borders. They believed the expansion would civilize the West and AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s democratic, cultural, and religious values would benefit the Native Americans. In addition, supporters would argue that the belief would strengthen the union, making it invulnerable. On the opposing side, consisting mostly of the Whig party, the God-given right to expand all the way westward at the price and rights of thousands of innocent natives was blasphemy. The Whig party was not manifest destinies only critic, abolitionist, fearful of slavery spreading, argued that the constitution did not give the country the right to gain new land and the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s vital institutions would suffer as America was spread too thin. Look more:Ã essays on manifest destiny TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ sought to join America as a new state, after it gained independence from Mexico and had a revolution. The process of expansion in which newly democratic and free states would seek entry into the United States, rather than the U.S. extending its government over unwanting people was ideal. The Democratic Party was threatened to fall apart if Texas entered the Union, as it would become another slave state and this forced both Presidents Jackson and Van Buren to decline TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ plea. During the election of 1844, both Henry Clay of the Whig Party and Van Buren of the Democratic Party were against the annexation of Texas, this displeased the Democrats as they wanted to gain Texas so they dropped Van Buren in favor of James Polk, who was for adding Texas as another slave state. Polk cleverly tied TexasÃ¢â¬â¢ annexation into the Oregon dispute, the controversy over OregonÃ¢â¬â¢s border. In 1846 the dispute was settled over the Oregon Treaty where the British relinquished its holding to the lower Colombia basin. This appeased expansionist in the north, who fought for Oregon and expansionist in the south, who focused primarily on Texas. After PolkÃ¢â¬â¢s election, he moved to occupy a free portion of Texas that was still claimed by Mexico. This sparked the Mexican-American War in 1846, were there were calls for Ã¢â¬Å"All MexicoÃ¢â¬ , mostly from Eastern Democrats, however MexicoÃ¢â¬â¢s annexation brought up much debate. If Mexico were to become a part of the United States it would mean millions of non-white Mexicans would become U.S. citizens, something Americans were not too keen on. The racist aspect of Manifest Destiny considers inferior Mexicans unqualified to become Americans whereas the mission aspect of Manifest Destiny dictates that Mexicans would become improved under American democracy. The Ã¢â¬Å"All MexicoÃ¢â¬ movement quickly abated with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 which granted Alta California and Nuevo MÃ ©xico to the United States, both of which were sparsely populated with Mexicans. After the Mexican-American War ended in 1848, disagreements over the expansion of slavery made further annexation by conquest too divisive to be official government policy. The belief in Manifest Destiny in the 1840Ã¢â¬â¢s greatly influenced both U.S. politics and policy and is to blame or thank for Americas expansion from Ã¢â¬Å"sea to shining sea.Ã¢â¬
My Future Goals Essay The purpose of this assignment is to look into my future and come up with achievable goals to be successful in my career, personal and academic endeavors. Napoleon Hill states, Ã¢â¬Å"The starting point of all achievement is desire. (Think and Grow Rich, 2005). So, your first step in goal setting and achieving your dreams is that youve got to really want to achieve the goal. My personal goal is to use my time management skills to keep organized in my class assignments. As a matter of fact, keeping organized will make my leisure time much more enjoyable. To achieve this goal I will use time management to make a schedule of all my classes. I have a very busy life and setting this goal will work in all areas of my life. Read more: My future plan essay In addition, my academic goals are to finish college with an Associate of Applied Science Degree in Information Technology. My future career depends on the completion of this degree. In as little as 2 years I will complete my online degree and be able to confront my ultimate challenges and have a successful career. Equally as important writing down the goal, the plan and a timeline sets events in motion that may not have happened otherwise. Furthermore, my career goal goes hand in hand with my academic goal. I have to finish my degree in order for my professional and career goal to be achievable. I want to work in the IT field. I would like to find a company that offers internship programs for students while attending college. This will be a long road but will be worth it in the end. I do have the support of my family, friends, and academic advisors. With all this support I can achieve my future goals.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Erosive Potential of Fruit Juices on Primary Teeth In Vitro evaluation of erosive potential of frozen and unfrozen fruit juices on primary teeth ABSTRACT: Dental erosion has gained importance now as a steadily growing public health problem world wide. Fruit juices are an important etiological factor, especially consumption in frozen forms, like fruit lollies and stick. Since this dietary habit is more prevalent among children, primary teeth were selected for this study. AIMS: To evaluate pH and titratable acidity of four fruit juices in frozen and unfrozen forms. Calcium dissolution and pattern of etching of enamel by these juices in frozen and unfrozen forms were also determined. DESIGN: pH of four different juices apple, orange, musumbi and grapes were determined using a digital pH meter. The titratable acidity of these in frozen and unfrozen forms were determined by adding 0.5 ml of 1N NaOH to these, till a pH=five and pH = seven were reached. Forty eight caries free deciduous anterior teeth specimens were prepared to study the etching pattern by scanning electron microscope [SEM] and calcium dissolution by atomic absorption spectrophotometer.STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA and pair wise multiple comparison with Bonferroni correction. RESULTS: Increase in titratable acidity, irregular pattern of etching and calcium dissolution were found to be significantly more in the initial thawed frozen fruit juices. Grape juice recorded the lowest pH and more titratable acidity when compared to other juices. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the detrimental effect on teeth by the frequent consumption of fruit juices and their frozen products. Th e study concluded that sucking on the frozen fruit juice products were more harmful than consuming in unfrozen state because more of erosion occurs in frozen state. Key words: Frozen fruit juices, pH, titratable acidity, erosion, etching, SEM. Introduction: Ã¢â¬Å"HEALTHY LIVING Ã¢â¬Å"the key to survival has been emphasized by health professionals upon the old and young alike. The Ã¢â¬Å"DIETARY FACTORÃ¢â¬ is gaining much accolade and health drinks in the form of fruit juices have gained tremendous popularity in this category. Parents regard these as being healthy and nutritious and a good source of Vitamin C.. Experiments conducted on the animals to evaluate the erosive potential of fruit juices showed that these juices were ten times more destructive to the teeth than the whole fruit. Most fruit juices have a low pH and acids which can decalcify the teeth. Hence, the frequent consumption of these fruit drinks is directly related to dental morbidity, especially erosio n.Dental erosion has been defined as superficial loss of dental hard tissue by a chemical process not involving bacteria. The aetiopathogenesis can be varied (intrinsic and extrinsic factors),most important are dietary acids. A modern habit among consumers is to freeze and suck out fruit lolly and candies.Sucking on frozen fruit juices has a greater risk for erosion due to slow consumption and longer time required to neutralize it.Sucking of the melting juices from the frozen product is a pleasurable experience along with increase in the initial acidity and buffering capacity.Hence the frequent use of these could produce damaging effects on the teeth. Primary teeth were included in this study,because children are frequently involved in the consumption of frozen fruit juices and deciduous teeth are more susceptible to erosion than permanent teeth due to less mineralisation and immature enamel surface The study was performed to evaluate the pH of four fruit juices in a frozen and unfrozen form. The titratable acidity of these fruit juices to be checked. The total amount of calcium dissolved in fruit juices from the teeth and to study the pattern of etched enamel on teeth. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preparation of juices: Two and half litres of four different fresh fruit juices namely apple, orange, grape and musumbi each were prepared with no added sugars or preservatives. These were allowed to equilibrate to room temperature. Specimen preparation: Fourty eight freshly extracted caries free deciduous anterior teeth were collected and were used in the study. Extracted teeth were completely coated with nail polish with the exception of a window on the enamel of the labial surface of approximately 2mm X 2mm in diameter. Method: Two and half litres of apple juice were shaken for 15sec and this was divided into four samples of 600ml each. First sample (600ml) of this was taken and calcium concentration was assessed. From this, 100 ml was separated, pH and titratable acidity were determined.Then another 100 ml was taken and a prepared tooth specimen was dipped in it for two hrs.(For assessment of calcium etching pattern at room temp). Remaining 400ml was taken in a bottle, sealed and placed in a recorded (-200c) deep freezer for 24 hrs. The bottle was taken and allowed to defrost. From this, initial 100ml was taken, pH and titratable acidity were determined. Then another 100 ml was taken and a prepared tooth was dipped in it for two hrs( For assessment of calcium etching pattern immediately after defrosting). Remaining 200 ml was defrosted for two hours. Then 100 ml of this was taken and pH and titratable acidity were determined. Another 100 ml was taken and a prepared tooth was dipped in it for two hrs (For assessment of calcium etching pattern two hrs after defrosting). This was repeated for remaining three samples (600ml each) of apple juice. The same procedure was done for the other three juices musumbi, orange and grape juice and the values recorded [Table1,2,3] Determination of pH and titratable acidity: pH was determined by using a pH meter (digital pH meter model Ã¢â¬âEQ-612). After determining the pH, the juice was titrated against 1N( Na OH )Sodium hydroxide by adding 0.5ml of the same to the juice, mixed well and this were repeated until pH=five and pH=seven were reached to determine their titratable acidity. Assessment of calcium content: The teeth were carefully lifted out of the juices and the juices were centrifuged at 3500 rpm for five min. With the help of micropipette [superfit] 200Ã ¼l of each of these samples of fruit juices were pipetted into the polypropylene tubes. Then 40Ã ¼l distilled water were rinsed into the polypropylene tubes with the fruit juices. Then concentrated nitric acid (120Ã ¼l) were added, the lid of the polypropylene tube sealed and the contents of the tube were wet washed, by leaving it at 600c for 12hrs. After cooling, 50Ã ¼l of one mol/L KCl solution (an ionization suppressant) and 680Ã ¼l of distilled water were added. Then samples were shaken and the calcium concentrations were determined by the use of a flame (nitrous oxide/acetylene) atomic absorption spectrophotometer. To obtain calcium content of the fruit juices (without teeth), 200 Ã ¼l of the fruit juices were wet ashed and atomized exactly as mentioned above. Determination of etching pattern: The teeth specimens were prepared for SEM observation by dehydration followed by sputter coating of 20 nm of gold (JEOL,JFC 1100 E-JAPAN) and examined under a scanning electron microscope (JEOL,JSM-840A-JAPAN).Instant photomicrographs were made at X850,X1000 magnifications. Subsequently the X1000 magnification pictures were selected to compare the pattern of etched enamel surfaces. Statistical analysis: The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis by using One-Way Repeated Measures ANOVA and Pair wise multiple comparison with Bonferroni correction RESULTS: RECORDED pH VALUES OF FOUR FRUIT JUICES (Table 1) Based on the results obtained in Table 1, the pH values of all the juices were less than 5.5, which is the critical pH, below which enamel dissolves. Grape juice recorded the lowest pH of 2.2 among the juices. TITRATABLE ACIDITY VALUES OF FOUR FRUIT JUICES (Table 2) For all the four fruit juices tested, the volume of 0.5 ml 1N NaOH needed to reach pH=five and pH= seven were more for immediate defrosted( initial thawed )juices than the juices at room temperature and that defrosted for two hrs. Hence, the immediate defrosted juices had more titratable acidity compared to the juices tested at other temperatures. Among the juices, grape juice had more titratable acidity. CALCIUM CONCENTRATION IN FOUR SAMPLES OF FRUIT JUICES MEASURED BY ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROPHOTOMETER ( Table 3) The amount of calcium dissolution in the juices from the teeth were found to be significantly more in the immediate defrosted juices than the room temperature juices and that defrosted for two hours. Evaluation of SEM Images : Representative SEM photomicrographs at magnification X1000. For teeth immersed in juices at room temperature, relatively smooth and slightly etched enamel surfaces were seen.[Figures 1- 4] Teeth dipped in juices immediately after defrosting, showed maximal erosion. Among these, apple showed eroded surface with enhanced porosity[figure5],a honeycomb enamel prism pattern noted in musumbi similar to that seen in acid etched enamel[figure 6].Teeth in orange and grapes showed more erosion resembling type II acid etching pattern [figures 7,8]. In case of teeth kept in juices two hrs after defrosting, the changes were similar to those seen at room temperature [figures 9-12]. DISCUSSION: The awareness of the population about health has lead to an increased consumption of natural food products, especially fruits and fruit juices. But fruit juices contain substantial acids(eg: citric acid in citrus fruits, malic acid in apples, tartaric acid in grapes)which have the potential to cause loss of tooth tissue. Various extrinsic and intrinsic factors contribute to dental erosion like diet, medicaments, occupation, sports, GERD, peptic ulcer, uremia etc.But most significant among these are dietary acids . Dental erosion due to dietary acids are influenced by a variety of factors like pH, titratable acidity, temperature, concentration, frequency, and exposure time.Many host factors also modify erosion, most important is saliva.Reduced salivary flow rate leads to inadequate oral clearance of dietary acids. Consumption of juices at night increases the erosive potential as salivary flow rate is diminished during this period. .Also different studies on salivary flow rate indicated that young children have lower flow rate, resulting in defective oral clearance. . Intake of dietary acids decreases pH of the oral environment. Gregory-Head B et al suggested that the pH of the oral cavity affected the solubility of the dental tissues. The critical pH at which the chemical dissolution of enamel occurs is accepted to be 5.5Ã ±0.3.In this study, all the four fruit juices namely in the order of grape, orange, musumbi and apple showed a pH below five, thus enhancing the enamel dissolution capacity. Titratable acidity which denotes the hydrogen ion availability has been acknowledged as a true indicator of erosive potential rather than pH value alone.Studies conducted by Touyz etal have shown that fruit juices have a high intrinsic buffering capacity.Modifying the form in which the fruit drinks are taken (sweets or frozen lollies) is expected to increase erosion. Sucking frozen fruit juices could be more erosive than unfrozen fruit juices because of increase in buffering capacity of initial thawed juice.. The acidity increases on freezing, as the physical state of the residual juice changes. When juice is frozen, water alone is solidified to ice without the solute. The solutes accumulates undiluted (concentrated). When juice is defrosted, the initial(concentrated) melt is more acidic with increased buffering capacity Thus sucking on these could cause a greater fall in oral pH and requires more buffering action to normalize the oral environment pH .As the remaining ice melts and dilutes the solution back to pre-freezed state, the buffering capacity diminishes. The calcium dissolution potential of these fruit juices was analyzed. It was found to be more in the initial thawed fruit juices than juices tested at other temperatures. This is in accordance with the findings of M.Silove  who suggested that sucking frozen fruit juices can lead to more calcium dissolution than unfrozen juices. Also in our study, lowest calcium concentration was found in grape juice which is in accordance with studies stating that the erosive potential of drinks are associated with low calcium concentration SEM was done to qualitatively estimate enamel surface alterations. Irregular and pitted enamel surface were observed in teeth exposed to frozen juices than at room temperature and after two hours of defrosting. Different etching patterns as described earlier were observed. [28-30] Similar studies were done on commercially available fruit juices and they are found to be 6-8 times more erosive than homemade juices. [31-33]The significance of this study was that, it was done in pure fruit juices, in frozen and unfrozen forms and multiple parameters were analyzed. The results showed that even pure fruit juices had erosive potential, especially in frozen forms. This study was done in vitro conditions, the results cannot be completely extrapolated to in vivo process, as interplay of various oral factors like salivary buffering capacity and flow rate to counteract erosion were not included in the study.  Recommendations: Although fruit juices are good for health, the frequency, method of drinking and the form in which they are consumed are important factors in dental erosion. Since children are frequently involved in the sucking of frozen fruit juice products, pediatric dentists should strongly discourage them from practicing this form of habit. Advise them to avoid fruit juices at bedtime and always rinse mouth with water after consumption of juices. Another point to consider is the use of additives which alter the pH and titratable acidity, thereby reducing the erosive potential of fruit juices. This requires further study. References: 1. Touyz L.Z.G . The Vitamin C contents of foods. J DASA 1982;37:444-48 2. Miller C.D.Enamel erosive properties of fruits and fruit juices.J Nutr 1950;41:63-67. 3. Touyz L.Z.G,Glassman R.M. Citrus acids and teeth. J DASA 1981;36:195-201 4. Eccles J.D,Jenkins W.G. Dental erosion and diet. J Dent 1974;2:153-159 5. R.Rajendran, author. ShaferÃ¢â¬â¢s textbook of Oral Pathology,5th Edition. Elsevier India 6. Lussi A,Jaeggi T,Zero D.The role of diet in the etiology of dental erosion.Caries Res 2004;38 suppl 1;34-44. 7. Kevin H-K Yip,Roger J Smales,John A Kaidonis.The diagnosis and control of extrinsic acid erosion of tooth substance.General dentistry 2003;350-353. 8. Touyz L.Z, Silove M. Increased acidity in frozen fruit juices and dental implications.ASDC J Dent child 1993;60:223-225. 9. Johansson AK,Sorvari R,Birkhed D,Meurman JH.Dental erosion in deciduous teeth-an in vivo and in vitro study.J Dent 2001;29:333-40. 10. Eccles J.D. Erosion affecting the palatal surfaces of upper anterior teeth in young people.Br Dent J.1982;152:375-378 11. Touyz L.Z.G. Apples, acids and teeth. S.A.J Sci 1980;76:200-201. 12. Grobler S.R,Aalbers J and Vander Horst G. The pH, calcium, potassium and phosphorus content in South African fruit juices. J. Dieteics Home Econ 1983;11:95-98 13.Jarvinen VK,Rytomaa II,Heinonen OP.Risk factors in dental erosion.J Dent Res 1991;70:942-947 14.Zero DT.Etiology of dental erosion-Extrinsic factors.Eur J Oral Sc 1996;104:162-177 15. Asher C,Read MJF. Early enamel erosion in children associated with the excessive consumption of citric acid. Br Dent J 1987;162:384-387 16. WestNX, Hughes JA, Addy M.Erosion of dentine and enamel in vitro by dietary acids:the effect of temperature,acid character,concentration and exposure time.J Oral Rehabil 2000;27:875-880. 17. Piangprach T,Hengtrakool C,Kukiattrakoon B,Kedjarune-Leggat U.The effect of salivary factors on dental erosion in various age groups and tooth surfaces.J Am Dent Assoc 2009 Sept;140(9):1137-43. 18.Millward A,Shaw L,Smith AJ,Rippin JW,Harrington E.The distribution and severity of tooth wear and relationship between erosion and dietary constituents in a group of children.Int J Pediatr Dent 1994;4:152-157 19.Crossner CG.Salivary flow rate in children and adolescents.Swed Dent J 1984;8:271-6 20. Gregory Head B, Curtis D. Erosion caused by gastro esophageal reflux :diagnostic considerations. J Prosthodont 1997;6:278-285 21.Jenkins,G.N.The physiology and biochemistry of the mouth.4th edition.Oxford, Blackwell,1978, pp 360-413. 22. Jenkins G.N. The influence of environmental fluids on enamel solubility.J Dent Res 1966;45:662-669. 23. Owens BM.The potential effects of pH and buffering capacity on dental erosion.Gen Dent 2007 Nov-Dec; 55(6):527-31. 24. M.J Larsen B.Nyvad. Enamel erosion by some soft drinks and orange juices relative to their pH buffering effect and contents of calcium phosphate. Caries Res 1999;33(Supplement 1):81-87 25. Holloway P.J , Mellanby M. and Stewart R.J.Fruit drinks and tooth erosion.Br Dent.J 1958;104:305-9 26. Louis LZ,G Touyz.The acidity and buffering capacity of Canadian fruit juices and dental implications. Scientific Journal 1994;60:454-48 27. West NX,Hughes JA, ParkerDM, Newcombe RG,Addy M.Development and evaluation of a low erosive black currant juice drink.2.Comparison with a conventional black currant juice drink and orange juice.J Dent1999 ;27:341-344 28. Imfeld T:Dental erosion.Definition,Classification and links.Eur J Oral Sci 1996;104: 151-155 29.Mannerberg F.Changes in the enamel surface in case of erosion.A replica study.Arch Oral Biol 1961;4:59-62 30.Silverstone,Saxton,Dogon. Variations in the pattern of acid etching of human enamel examined by SEM. Caries Res 1975;9:373. 31. Albert Schuurs.Pathology of the hard dental tissues.Ist edition.Wiley-Blackwell;2013. pp158-159 32. Shaw L,Smith A.Erosion in children:An increasing clinical problem?Dent Update 1994;21:103-106. 33. Tahmassebi JF, Duggal MS, Malik-Kotru G,Curzon MEJ.Soft drinks and dental health:a review of the current literature.J Dent 2006;34:2-11
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Personal response to Robinson Crusoe "...I observe that the expectation of evil is more bitter than the suffering..."(p.181). Only after several readings of different portions of Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and several attempts at drafting a different type of paper, did I finally decide upon using this particular quotation. For me the best kind of writing is the one that does itself, and this quote is the basis for that kind of writing. All I have to do is hold the pen. My first recollection of being "locked into" fear (aside from the boogey man, ghosts and witches) was the first time I had to be absent from school for several days. I believe I was ill with a sore throat and fever. At the age of five or six, an hour often feels like a day, and a day like a week, so to be out of school for four days seemed quite a LONG time. Anyway, I remember my mother finally telling me I could go back to school the next morning. While part of me was happy and excited at the thought of seeing my friends and my teacher, the other part of me was terrified. What if when I got to my classroom no one talked to me? (because I hadn't been there). What if my teacher was mad at me? (because I hadn't been there). What if they all made fun of me? (because I hadn't been there). What if I didn't know any answers? (because I hadn't been there). I would die: I just knew I would. Well, after several hours of this kind of thinking along with the escalating of fear and anxiety that accompanied it, I really didn't have to worry about school the next day; I was making myself too sick to go back! The next morning after refusing to eat breakfast (which my mother said I was too excited to eat), I got dressed in my favorite outfit (red corduroy pants, checkered shirt- -with solid red scarf, red socks and white sneakers), and sat on the couch-waiting for my older sister, Susan, to finish getting ready to take me to school. The old fear-thoughts started again, and this time I had neither the comforts of my bedcovers nor of a day's respite.
Friday, July 19, 2019
As the welcoming celebration for Beowulf goes on, Unferth begins to ridicule Beowulf about his swimming competition with Breca. Unferth is jealous and feels threatened by Beowulf " for he would not allow that any other man of middle-earth should ever achieve more glory under the heavens than himself." (Norton p. 33) Unferth is a very peculiar character. Although he has committed the horrific crime of killing his brother(s), he is privileged enough to sit at the feet of the king, a very respected position. His sin,an enormous violation of the comitatus, suggests that there is something wrong in Hrothgar's kingdom and perhaps helps to foreshadow its destruction. Ultimately, it will be destroyed, as the text says, by a fire after " sword-hate between son-in-law and father-in-law to awaken after murderous rage." (Norton p. 28). Unferth tries to put Beowulf down by saying that Beowulf once risked his life for pride and foolish boast. He also points out that Breca has beaten Beowulf in the swimming and that he therefore expects him to lose the fight with Grendel as well. Unferth is arrogant, obnoxious and the only one who challenges Beowulf. However, later when Beowulf fights with Grendel's mother, Unferth lends him his sword. This can be seen as a noble gesture, and a redemption of Unferth for the way he has behaved. However, it can also provide further proof of Unferth's incompetence as a warrior. Because he is scared to fight himself, he passes on his sword to Beowulf. Beowulf answers Unferth's words of envy with his side of the story. He says that Unferth is drunk and obviously knows nothing about the competition. Continuing, Beowulf explains that he won the contest despite the heavy attack by sea-monsters. From this story, we see further proof of Beowulf's supernatural powers. The competition occurs during the winter in the freezing water, yet Beowulf is able to swim for five nights armed with a heavy sword, in full armor and mail . When the battle is over, Beowulf finds himself on the shore lying next to nine sea monsters that he killed with his sword and modestly attributes his victory to both courage and fate. His comment that, " Fate often saves an undoomed man when his courage is good" (Norton p. 34) shows his belief that 'Fate' will forever govern him and aid him as long as he is courageous.